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  Adenia macrophylla var. singaporiana
  Family Name : Passifloraceae

  Synonyms : Passiflora singaporiana

  Common Names : Large-leafed Adenia, Singapore Adenia, Singapore Passion Flower

  Chinese Name : 大叶蒴莲

Large-leafed Adenia,Singapore Adenia,Singapore Passion Flower
  • Record Info
    • Featured in '1001 Garden Plants in Singapore' Book (2ed) :
  • Life Stage & Characteristics
    • Plant Division :
      Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
      Plant Growth Form :
      Climber, Vine & Liana
      Lifespan (in Singapore) :
      Mode of Nutrition :
      Plant Shape :
      Maximum Height :
      25 m
  • Biogeography
    • Native Distribution :
      Peninsular Malaysia (Johor), Singapore
      Native Habitat :
      Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest; Secondary Rainforest)
      Preferred Climate Zone :
      Local Conservation Status :
      Native to Singapore (Vulnerable (VU))
  • Description & Ethnobotany
    • Plant Morphology :
      Growth Form: Slender woody vine, climbing with tendrils borne from flower-bearing branches, reaching up to 25m height with support. Typically spreading widely amongst tree crowns, but main plant usually difficult to spot, unless when flowering.
      Foliage: Its alternate, stalked leaves have thickly leathery blades that are usually oblong to lance-shaped, and 5–15 by 1.8–8 cm, with two spoon-shaped glands at either side of the base.
      Flowers: The plant is monoecious, producing only male or only female flowers on the branches. The former is produced in much larger proportion. Flowers of both sexes are yellow, tubular, less than 1 cm wide, and arranged in hanging clusters.
      Fruits: Its shiny red fruit is capsule-shaped, about 5 cm long, and splits along three lines from the apex to reveal 15–40 seeds each. Its seeds are blackish when mature, flat and round. Each seed is also surrounded in white fleshy pulp, and suspended by pink threads.
      Habitat :
      It grows on trees in forests and along forest edges. It occurs locally in Central Catchment areas, Nee Soon Swamp Forest, and Chestnut Area.
      Associated Fauna :
      Locally preferred host / food plant for Cethosia hypsea hypsina (Malay Lacewing Butterfly), which lays its eggs on undersides of leaves, and on stems or tendrils.
      Cultivation :
      Fast growing. Best propagated by seeds (which germinate easily) or by cuttings. Cut surfaces should be handled with caution, as Adenia genus (especially caudiciform types) is known to contain toxic sap, which is poisonous if ingested by vetebrates, and may cause skin irritation in sensitive individuals.
      Etymology :
      Genus epithet 'Adenia' derived from Aden, a small seaport near the Red Sea, from which the type species originated. Species epithet 'macrophylla' means 'big leaf', a reference to the plant's relatively large leaves.
      Ethnobotanical Uses :
  • Landscaping Features
    • Landscaping :
      It is suitable for planting on trellis in parks and gardens for its attractive red fruits.
      Desirable Plant Features :
      Ornamental Fruits, Ornamental Seeds
      Plant & Rootzone Preference/Tolerance :
      Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils
      Landscape Uses :
      Parks & Gardens, Small Gardens, Vertical Greenery / Green Wall, Trellis / Arbour / Pergola
      Thematic Landscaping :
      Naturalistic Garden, Butterfly Garden
      Usage Hazards / Cons :
      Toxic Upon Ingestion, Irritant - Sap, [Remarks] (Plant sap contains cyanogenic compounds & lectins, toxic to vetebrates when ingested, & may cause skin irritation when handled.)
  • Fauna, Pollination & Dispersal
    • Associated Fauna :
      Caterpillar Food Plant (Associated with: Cethosia hypsea)
      Seed / Spore Dispersal :
      Abiotic (Explosive Dehiscence)
  • Plant Care & Propagation
    • Light Preference :
      Full Sun, Semi-Shade
      Water Preference :
      Moderate Water
      Plant Growth Rate :
      Maintenance Requirements :
      Propagation Method :
      Seed, Stem Cutting
      Propagule Establishment Remarks :
      Seeds germinate easily.
  • Foliar
    • Foliage Retention :
      Mature Foliage Colour(s) :
      Mature Foliage Texture(s) :
      Leathery, Thick
      Foliar Type :
      Simple / Unifoliate
      Foliar Arrangement Along Stem :
      Foliar Attachment to Stem :
      Foliar Shape(s) :
      Non-Palm Foliage (Elliptical; Oblong)
      Foliar Venation :
      Pinnate / Net
      Foliar Margin :
      Foliar Apex / Tip :
      Foliar Base :
      Typical Foliar Area :
      Notophyll ( 20.25cm2 - 45 cm2 )
  • Non-Foliar & Storage
    • Stem Type & Modification :
      Woody, Herbaceous
      Root Type :
      Underground (Fibrous Root)
  • Floral (Angiosperm)
    • Flower & Plant Sexuality :
      Unisexual Flowers (Monoecious)
      Flower Colour(s) :
      Green, Yellow / Golden
      Flower Grouping :
      Cluster / Inflorescence
      Flower Location :
      Flower Symmetry :
      Individual Flower Shape :
      Flower Size :
      Remarks (Male & female flowers less than 1cm across.)
      Flowering Habit :
  • Fruit, Seed & Spore
    • Mature Fruit Colour(s) [Angiosperms & Gymnosperms] :
      Fruit Classification :
      Simple Fruit
      Fruit Type :
      Dehiscent Dry Fruit (Capsule)

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