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  Protoreaster nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758)
  Family Name : Oreasteridae

  Taxonomic Group : Invertebrates (Echinoderm)

  Common Names : Knobbly Sea Star, Knobby Starfish, Giant Knobbly Seastar

Knobbly Sea Star,Knobby Starfish,Giant Knobbly Seastar
  • Description
    • Description :
      A large robust sea-star, pinkish, orange or beige in colour and with prominent, darkly pigmented, conical protuberances on the upper surface.
  • Ecology, Habitat & Location
    • Habitat Notes :
      Found on reef flats amongst seagrass. Uncommon in Singapore waters except at isolated locations on a reef flats in the Southern Islands and one other site at Pulau Ubin in the Johor Straits.
      Ecological Notes :
      An extra-oral feeder, but little is known of its biology.
      Habitats :
      Marine, Sandy Shore
      Distribution :
      Rarely seen in Singapore waters in recent years. In 1991 a small population (about 5 per 100m2) was found on a reef flat fringing Pulau Semakau, part of which has now been overtaken by development. By 2004 another population had been found intertidally in the eastern Johor Straits, and another population in the north-east. Distribution is thus very restricted.
      Nature Areas :
      Pulau Tekong, Pulau Ubin
  • Conservation
    • Trends & Threats :
      Vulnerable to potential mutilation of disturbance by reef walkers or to habitat loss during reclamation. Elsewhere in the Indo-west Pacific, notably the Philippines, medium to small individuals have been dried in large numbers as curios for export. This activity could become a threat in Singapore but is not likely as the population is small.
      Scientific Interest & Potential Value :
      Little is known of its biology but large size indicates that it may be an important part of the reef ecosystem. A useful bioindicator species for monitoring reef health.
      Conservation Notes :
      Persistence in Singapore is unlikely unless its refuge habitats are conserved (e.g. as marine protected areas) and remain free from degradation or inappropriate development.
  • Status
    • Species Status :
      Singapore Red Data Book 2008 status :
      Endangered (EN)
      Singapore Red Data Book 1994 status :
      Endangered (E)
  • References
    • Davison, G.W.H., Ng, P.K.L. & Ho, H.C (Eds.). 2008. The Singapore Red Data Book (2nd Edition). Singapore: Nature Society (Singapore). 285pp 
      Ng, P.K.L. & Wee, Y.C. (Eds.). 1994. The Singapore Red Data Book (1st Edition). Singapore: Nature Society (Singapore). 343pp 
      Tan, R. & Yeo, A. 2003. Chek Jawa guidebook. Singapore: Simply Green. 219pp 

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