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  Sterculia parviflora Roxb.
  Family Name : Malvaceae

  Synonyms : Sterculia maingayi, Sterculia holttumii

  Common Names : Common Sterculia, Kelumpang Burong, Kelumpang Gajah, Samrong

Common Sterculia,Kelumpang Burong,Kelumpang Gajah,Samrong
  • Record Info
    • Featured in '1001 Garden Plants in Singapore' Book (2ed) :
  • Life Stage & Characteristics
    • Plant Division :
      Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
      Plant Growth Form :
      Tree (Medium (16m-30m))
      Lifespan (in Singapore) :
      Mode of Nutrition :
      Plant Shape :
      Maximum Height :
      24 m to 30 m
  • Biogeography
    • Native Distribution :
      Northeast India to Peninsular Malaysia, and Singapore
      Native Habitat :
      Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest)
      Preferred Climate Zone :
      Local Conservation Status :
      Native to Singapore (Critically Endangered (CR))
  • Description & Ethnobotany
    • Plant Morphology :
      Growth Form: It is a deciduous tree, up to 35 m tall.
      Trunk: Its trunk is typically clear and straight, sometimes slightly buttressed. Bark greyish, flaking in coarse uneven bits.
      Foliage: Its alternate, stalked leaves have leaf blades that are ovate, elliptic or elliptic-oblong, 8-20 cm by 4-10 cm.
      Flowers: Its hairy flowers are pinkish in colour, borne on branched inflorescenes that are up to 20 cm long.
      Fruits: Its velvety fruits are oblong follicles , 6-9 cm by 2-3 cm, ripening red in colour.
      Habitat :
      It grows in tropical lowland primary and secondary jungles, as well as hill forests.
      Associated Fauna :
      Its flowers are insect-pollinated.
      Cultivation :
      Hardy tree tolerant of urban conditions. Planted trees produce fruits in 4-5 years. Propagate by seeds -- to aid germination, remove the black seedcoat and surrounding white pulp before sowing. Established saplings transplant well -- specimens with 10cm trunk diameter can be transplanted without need for crown pruning.
      Etymology :
      Genus epithet 'Sterculia' named after Sterquilinus (or Sterculius), the early mythological Roman god of manuring and fertilization (where 'stercus' means 'dung' in Latin) -- alluding to how some species from this genus produce a foetid scent. Species epithet 'parviflora' means 'small-flowered' in Latin, a reference to the plant's blooms.
      Ethnobotanical Uses :
  • Landscaping Features
    • Landscaping :
      It is suitable for gardens, parks, and streetscapes for its attractive flowers, fruits and form.
      Desirable Plant Features :
      Ornamental Flowers, Ornamental Fruits, Ornamental Seeds, Ornamental Form
      Plant & Rootzone Preference/Tolerance :
      Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils
      Landscape Uses :
      General, Roadside Tree / Palm, Parks & Gardens, Shade Providing Tree / Palm
      Thematic Landscaping :
      Naturalistic Garden
  • Fauna, Pollination & Dispersal
    • Associated Fauna :
      Bird-Attracting (Seeds)
      Pollination Method(s) :
      Biotic (Fauna) (Insects (Ant, Beetle, Fly, Thrip, Wasp); Associated with: Flies, Beetles)
      Seed / Spore Dispersal :
      Biotic (Fauna) (Associated with: Birds, monkeys), Abiotic (Explosive Dehiscence)
  • Plant Care & Propagation
    • Light Preference :
      Full Sun
      Water Preference :
      Moderate Water
      Plant Growth Rate :
      Maintenance Requirements :
      Propagation Method :
      Propagule Establishment Remarks :
      Before sowing, remove black seed coat & white pulp around seed to facilitate germination.
  • Foliar
    • Foliage Retention :
      Drought / Semi-Deciduous
      Mature Foliage Colour(s) :
      Mature Foliage Texture(s) :
      Leathery, Raised / Sunken Veins, Thick
      Foliar Type :
      Simple / Unifoliate
      Foliar Arrangement Along Stem :
      Foliar Attachment to Stem :
      Foliar Shape(s) :
      Non-Palm Foliage (Ovate; Elliptical; Oblong)
      Foliar Venation :
      Pinnate / Net
      Foliar Margin :
      Foliar Apex / Tip :
      Acute, Acuminate
      Foliar Base :
      Typical Foliar Area :
      Mesophyll ( 45cm2 - 182.25 cm2 )
      Leaf Area Index (LAI) * for Green Plot Ratio :
      4.0 (Tree - Dense Canopy)
  • Non-Foliar & Storage
    • Trunk Type (Non-Palm) :
      Bark Colour(s) :
      Greyish to pinkish
      Mature Bark Texture :
      Peeling / Flaking / Papery, [Remarks] (Coarsely flaky)
      Stem Type & Modification :
      Root Type :
      Underground (Tap Root; Fibrous Root)
  • Floral (Angiosperm)
    • Flower & Plant Sexuality :
      Unisexual & Bisexual Flowers(Sub-dioecious)
      Flower Colour(s) :
      Pink, Yellow / Golden
      FlowerTexture(s) :
      Hairy / Hirsute
      Flower Grouping :
      Cluster / Inflorescence
      Flower Location :
      Flower Size :
      Remarks (0.85cm long & wide)
      Inflorescence Type :
      Inflorescence Size :
      Remarks (Flower base matures from pale yellow-pink to completely reddish-pink.)
      Flowering Period :
      Once Yearly
      Flowering Habit :
  • Fruit, Seed & Spore
    • Mature Fruit Colour(s) [Angiosperms & Gymnosperms] :
      Mature Fruit Texture(s) :
      Velvety / Furry / Tomentose
      Fruit Classification :
      Simple Fruit
      Fruit Type :
      Dehiscent Dry Fruit (Follicle)

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