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  Grammatophyllum speciosum Blume
  Family Name : Orchidaceae

  Common Names : Tiger Orchid, Bunga Bidadari, Ekor Gajah

 
Tiger Orchid,Bunga Bidadari,Ekor Gajah
  • Record Info
  • Life Stage & Characteristics
    • Plant Division :
      Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Monocotyledon)
      Lifespan (in Singapore) :
      Perennial
      Mode of Nutrition :
      Autotrophic
      Maximum Height :
      3 m
  • Biogeography
    • Native Distribution :
      Southeast Asia to Papua New Guinea
      Native Habitat :
      Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest; Freshwater Swamp Forest; Riverine)
      Preferred Climate Zone :
      Tropical, Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal
      Local Conservation Status :
      Native to Singapore (Presumed Nationally Extinct (NE))
      CITES Protection :
      True (Appendix II)
  • Description & Ethnobotany
    • Plant Morphology :
      Growth Form: It is a large, clumping, epiphytic orchid. Its stem is 3 m or longer, and up to 5 cm thick. It is also the largest orchid species in the world.
      Foliage: Its stalkless, two-rowed leaves have thin leaf blades that are strap-like, narrowing and curving downwards towards the sharp tips, and 31–60 by 2.5–3 cm.
      Stems: Stems are long and fleshy.
      Flowers: Its 10 cm-wide flowers are borne on an elongated shoot from the base of the stem. Both its sepals and petals are pale greenish-yellow with orange-brown spots, turning darker when older.. The floral stalk is about 2 m tall and carries about 40 long-lasting flowers.
      Fruits: Its pear-shaped fruits are about 15 cm long.
      Habitat :
      It grows on trees near rivers and streams.
      Associated Fauna :
      It is probably pollinated by large bees.
      Cultivation :
      This species is best grown as an epiphyte, but it can also be planted in the ground or in large containers. To grow it as an epiphyte, it can be tied to the trunk of a large tree near the crotch.
      Ethnobotanical Uses :
      None
  • Landscaping Features
    • Landscaping :
      It is the largest orchid species in the world with specimens growing up to 2 tonnes and bearing up to 7,000 at a time! It is often grown as an ornamental orchid in gardens and parks for its attractive foliage and large flowers. It is cultivated as an epiphyte on street trees in Singapore. In Singapore, it flowers in January or July, but plants do not flower every year. It can also be cultivated in well-drained loose substrate as a terrestrial plant.
      Desirable Plant Features :
      Ornamental Flowers, Ornamental Form
      Plant & Rootzone Preference/Tolerance :
      Well-Drained Soils
      Landscape Uses :
      Roadside Tree / Palm, Parks & Gardens, Small Gardens, Green Roof, Flowerbed / Border
  • Fauna, Pollination & Dispersal
    • Pollination Method(s) :
      Biotic (Fauna)
      Seed / Spore Dispersal :
      Abiotic
  • Plant Care & Propagation
    • Light Preference :
      Full Sun, Semi-Shade
      Water Preference :
      Little Water, Occasional Misting
      Propagation Method :
      Seed, Division
  • Foliar
    • Foliage Retention :
      Evergreen
      Mature Foliage Colour(s) :
      Green
      Mature Foliage Texture(s) :
      Smooth
      Foliar Type :
      Simple / Unifoliate
      Foliar Arrangement Along Stem :
      Alternate
      Foliar Attachment to Stem :
      Sessile
      Foliar Shape(s) :
      Non-Palm Foliage (Linear)
      Foliar Venation :
      Parallel
      Foliar Margin :
      Entire
      Leaf Area Index (LAI) * for Green Plot Ratio :
      3.5 (Shrub & Groundcover - Monocot)
  • Floral (Angiosperm)
    • Flower & Plant Sexuality :
      Bisexual Flowers
      Flower Colour(s) :
      Brown, Yellow / Golden
      Flower Grouping :
      Cluster / Inflorescence
      Flower Location :
      Axillary
      Flower Symmetry :
      Bilateral
      Individual Flower Shape :
      Labiate / Lipped
  • Fruit, Seed & Spore
    • Mature Fruit Colour(s) [Angiosperms & Gymnosperms] :
      Brown
      Fruit Classification :
      Simple Fruit
      Fruit Type :
      Dehiscent Dry Fruit (Capsule)

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