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Adenia macrophylla var. singaporiana
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  Alstonia angustiloba Miq.
  Family Name : Apocynaceae

  Synonyms : Alstonia pneumatophora var. petiolata

  Common Names : Common Pulai, Pulai

  Chinese Name : 黑板树, 橡皮树

Common Pulai,Pulai
  • Record Info
  • Life Stage & Characteristics
    • Plant Division :
      Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
      Plant Growth Form :
      Tree (Big (>30m))
      Lifespan (in Singapore) :
      Mode of Nutrition :
      Plant Shape :
      Maximum Height :
      25 m to 40 m
      Maximum Plant Spread / Crown Width :
      10 m
  • Biogeography
    • Native Distribution :
      Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Borneo, and Java
      Native Habitat :
      Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest; Secondary Rainforest; Freshwater Swamp Forest)
      Preferred Climate Zone :
      Local Conservation Status :
      Native to Singapore (Common)
  • Description & Ethnobotany
    • Plant Morphology :
      Growth Form: It is a tree up to 40 m tall, with a pagoda-shaped crown, and tiered branching.
      Trunk: Bark dark grey, smooth when young, becoming slightly cracked when it gets older. The wood is pale yellow and soft.
      Foliage: Its four- to nine-whorled, stalked leaves have somewhat leathery leaf blades that are oval-shaped, glossy dark green above, pale green below, and 4.5–22 by 2.1–7 cm, with short tips. Its leaf blades also possess numerous secondary veins that are almost perpendicular to the midrib. Milky-white latex is exuded from the broken leaf parts.
      Flowers: Its fragrant flowers are creamy white, 8.5 mm wide, and develop in clusters of 3–8 at the end of the twigs, on 3–14 cm-long shoots.
      Fruits: Its fruits develop as a pair of pods that are smooth, 15–35 by 0.2–0.6 cm, covered with brown hairs, and contain many seeds. Its dark brown, wind-dispersed seeds are smooth, oblong, flat, and 5–7 by 1.3–1.5 mm.
      Habitat :
      It grows in primary and secondary forests, in swamps, on hills, loam or sandy soils up to 200 m altitude. It is known locally from Western Catchment, Nee Soon, Bukit Mandai, Bukit Timah, Upper Pierce Reservoir, Tampines, Pulau Ubin, Mount Faber, and Lazarus Island.
      Associated Fauna :
      It is the preferred local food plant for caterpillars of the moths, Daphnis hypothous, and Parotis marginata. Its flowers are also insect-pollinated.
      Cultivation :
      It can be propagated by seed.
      Etymology :
      Latin Alstonia, commemorates Dr. Charles Alston (1685–1760), a professor of botany at Edinburgh University; Latin angustiloba means having narrow lobes, referring to the narrow calyx lobes of the flower
      Ethnobotanical Uses :
      Medicinal (Abscesses and boils can be treated using the latex from the bark.), Timber & Products (The soft wood is used in making floor boards, household items, matches, and posts.), Cultural / Religious (

      Heritage Tree :
      There are several individuals of Alstonia angustiloba listed as Heritage Trees in Singapore. They are found all over Singapore. To find out more about these trees, please visit the Heritage Tree Register.
  • Landscaping Features
    • Landscaping :
      It is planted along expressways, major roads, and in urban landscapes as an ornamental tree because of its attractive growth form. It is also tolerant of a wide range of soil types from waterlogged to drier conditions.
      Desirable Plant Features :
      Ornamental Flowers, Ornamental Foliage, Ornamental Form, Fragrant (Flowers: Day, Night)
      Plant & Rootzone Preference/Tolerance :
      Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils
      Landscape Uses :
      General, Roadside Tree / Palm, Parks & Gardens, Small Gardens, Riverine, Shade Providing Tree / Palm
      Thematic Landscaping :
      Naturalistic Garden, Fragrant / Aromatherapy Garden
  • Fauna, Pollination & Dispersal
    • Associated Fauna :
      Caterpillar Food Plant (Leaves; Associated with: Parotis marginata), Caterpillar (Moth) Food Plant (Leaves; Associated with)
      Pollination Method(s) :
      Biotic (Fauna)
      Seed / Spore Dispersal :
      Abiotic (Wind)
  • Plant Care & Propagation
    • Light Preference :
      Full Sun
      Water Preference :
      Moderate Water
      Plant Growth Rate :
      Propagation Method :
  • Foliar
    • Foliage Retention :
      Mature Foliage Colour(s) :
      Mature Foliage Texture(s) :
      Smooth, Leathery
      Foliar Type :
      Simple / Unifoliate
      Foliar Arrangement Along Stem :
      Foliar Attachment to Stem :
      Foliar Shape(s) :
      Non-Palm Foliage (Oval)
      Foliar Venation :
      Pinnate / Net
      Foliar Margin :
      Leaf Area Index (LAI) * for Green Plot Ratio :
      3.0 (Tree - Intermediate Canopy)
  • Floral (Angiosperm)
    • Flower & Plant Sexuality :
      Bisexual Flowers
      Flower Colour(s) :
      Flower Grouping :
      Cluster / Inflorescence
      Flower Location :
      Flower Symmetry :
  • Fruit, Seed & Spore
    • Mature Fruit Colour(s) [Angiosperms & Gymnosperms] :
      Fruit Classification :
      Simple Fruit
      Fruit Type :
      Dehiscent Dry Fruit (Follicle)
The information given on this website has been compiled from reference works on medicinal plants and/or pron only. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Reliance on this information is strictly at your own risk. You should always consult your physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.

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