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  Calophyllum inophyllum L.
  Family Name : Calophyllaceae

  Synonyms : Calophyllum bingator, Calophyllum blumei, Calophyllum spurium, Calophyllum wakamatsui

  Common Names : Penaga Laut, Bintangor Laut, Borneo Mahogany, Alexandrine Laurel, Alexandrian Laurel, Alexandra Laurel, Indian Laurel, Laurel Wood, Beauty Leaf, Nyamplung, Penaga, Bodek Laut, Paku Achu, Bintangur Bunga

Penaga Laut,Bintangor Laut,Borneo Mahogany,Alexandrine Laurel,Alexandrian Laurel,Alexandra Laurel,Indian Laurel,Laurel Wood,Beauty Leaf,Nyamplung,Penaga,Bodek Laut,Paku Achu,Bintangur Bunga
  • Record Info
  • Life Stage & Characteristics
    • Plant Growth Form :
  • Biogeography
    • Native Distribution :
      East Africa to Polynesia
      Local Conservation Status :
      Native to Singapore (Critically Endangered (CR))
  • Description & Ethnobotany
    • Plant Morphology :
      Growth Form: Tree that grows up to 20 m except shorter when growing along the seashore.
      Foliage: Glossy, leathery leaves are oval-shaped.
      Flowers: White, star-shaped flowers with round, cupped petals and numerous yellow stamens (pollen-producing structure). They have a sweet fragrance, but last for only about a day.
      Fruits: Dull green, spherical fruits are toxic upon ingestion.
      Ethnobotanical Uses :
      Food (Herb & Spice)
      Medicinal, Cultural / Religious (

      Heritage Tree :
      There are several individuals of Calophyllum inophyllum listed as Heritage Trees in Singapore. They are found all over various parts of Singapore. To find out more about these trees, please visit the 
      Heritage Tree Register.
      [Others]: Oil extracted from the seeds was once used to fuel lamps.
  • Landscaping Features
    • Desirable Plant Features :
      Ornamental Flowers
      Landscape Uses :
      Roadside Tree / Palm, Coastal
  • Plant Care & Propagation
    • Light Preference :
      Full Sun
      Water Preference :
      Moderate Water
  • Foliar
    • Foliage Retention :
      Mature Foliage Colour(s) :
      Mature Foliage Texture(s) :
      Smooth, Glossy / Shiny, Leathery
      Foliar Type :
      Simple / Unifoliate
      Foliar Arrangement Along Stem :
      Foliar Attachment to Stem :
      Foliar Shape(s) :
      Non-Palm Foliage (Oval)
      Foliar Venation :
      Pinnate / Net
      Foliar Margin :
      Foliar Apex / Tip :
      Foliar Base :
      Rounded / Obtuse
      Leaf Area Index (LAI) * for Green Plot Ratio :
      3.0 (Tree - Intermediate Canopy)
  • Floral (Angiosperm)
    • Flower Colour(s) :
      FlowerTexture(s) :
      Flower Grouping :
      Cluster / Inflorescence
      Flower Location :
      Flower Symmetry :
      Individual Flower Shape :
      Inflorescence Type :
      Flowering Habit :
  • Fruit, Seed & Spore
    • Mature Fruit Colour(s) [Angiosperms & Gymnosperms] :
      Mature Fruit Texture(s) :
The information given on this website has been compiled from reference works on medicinal plants and/or pron only. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Reliance on this information is strictly at your own risk. You should always consult your physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.

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