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  Eurycoma longifolia Jack
  Family Name : Simaroubaceae

  Synonyms : Eurycoma merguensis, Ailanthus siamense, Ailanthus asiatica

  Common Names : Tongkat Ali, Bidara Pahit, Ali's Umbrella, Payong Ali, Penawa Pahit

Tongkat Ali,Bidara Pahit,Ali's Umbrella,Payong Ali,Penawa Pahit
  • Record Info
  • Life Stage & Characteristics
    • Plant Division :
      Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
      Plant Growth Form :
      Tree (Small (6m-15m))
      Lifespan (in Singapore) :
      Mode of Nutrition :
      Plant Shape :
      Maximum Height :
      12 m
  • Biogeography
    • Native Distribution :
      Southern Myanmar, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, and Borneo
      Native Habitat :
      Terrestrial (Mountain), Shoreline (Coastal Cliff; Sandy Beach)
      Preferred Climate Zone :
      Tropical, Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal
      Local Conservation Status :
      Native to Singapore (Critically Endangered (CR))
  • Description & Ethnobotany
    • Plant Morphology :
      Growth Form: It is an usually unbranched, small tree up to 12 m tall, with branches crowned by a rosette of leaves.
      Foliage: Its alternate, stalked pinnate leaves are up to 100 cm long. Its leathery leaflets are lance- to egg-shaped, dark green above, mid-green below, and 5–20 by 1–6 cm.
      Flowers: Its flowers are bell-shaped, greenish white to greenish red or purple, 6 mm wide, with petals that are 4.5–5.5 by 1.5–3 mm, and develop each into 1–5 fruits.
      Fruits: Its fruits are oblong, yellow when ripe turning red, and 10–20 by 5–12 mm.
      Habitat :
      It grows in heath forest, sandy coasts, submontane forest, and the understorey of primary and secondary forest to 1,200m altitude. It is abundant on well-drained, sandy soils.
      Cultivation :
      It can be propagated by seed.
      Ethnobotanical Uses :
      Medicinal (The young leaves are eaten raw to relieve stomach pains. The roots are used as an aphrodisiac based mostly on folklore, and they also contain anti-malarial compounds. A decoction of the root is used to reduce fevers, reduce high blood pressure, and relieve gastric pains. The roots are also used to induce vomiting, and poultice sores, ulcers, and wounds. The bark is used for blood clotting in childbirth complications.)
  • Landscaping Features
    • Landscaping :
      It is suitable for streetscapes, parks and gardens.
      Desirable Plant Features :
      Ornamental Flowers, Ornamental Form
      Plant & Rootzone Preference/Tolerance :
      Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Saline Soils / Salt Spray, Fertile Loamy Soils
      Landscape Uses :
      General, Roadside Tree / Palm, Parks & Gardens, Small Gardens, Coastal
  • Fauna, Pollination & Dispersal
    • Pollination Method(s) :
      Biotic (Fauna)
      Seed / Spore Dispersal :
      Biotic (Fauna)
  • Plant Care & Propagation
    • Light Preference :
      Full Sun, Semi-Shade
      Water Preference :
      Moderate Water
      Propagation Method :
  • Foliar
    • Foliage Retention :
      Mature Foliage Colour(s) :
      Mature Foliage Texture(s) :
      Foliar Type :
      Compound (Odd-Pinnate)
      Foliar Arrangement Along Stem :
      Rosulate / Rosette
      Foliar Shape(s) :
      Non-Palm Foliage (Lanceolate; Elliptical)
      Foliar Venation :
      Pinnate / Net
      Foliar Margin :
      Leaf Area Index (LAI) * for Green Plot Ratio :
      2.5 (Tree - Open Canopy)
  • Floral (Angiosperm)
    • Flower & Plant Sexuality :
      Bisexual Flowers
      Flower Colour(s) :
      Flower Grouping :
      Cluster / Inflorescence
      Flower Location :
      Flower Symmetry :
  • Fruit, Seed & Spore
    • Mature Fruit Colour(s) [Angiosperms & Gymnosperms] :
      Fruit Classification :
      Simple Fruit
      Fruit Type :
      Dehiscent Dry Fruit (Capsule)
The information given on this website has been compiled from reference works on medicinal plants and/or pron only. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Reliance on this information is strictly at your own risk. You should always consult your physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.

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