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  Talipariti tiliaceum (L.) Fryxell
  Family Name : Malvaceae

  Synonyms : Pariti tiliaceum, Hibiscus azanzae, Pariti tiliaceum var. heterophyllum, Abelmoschus boninense, Hibiscus tiliiaefolia, Hibiscus boninensis, Abelmoschus tiliaceum, Hibiscus tiliaceus

  Common Names : Sea Hibiscus, Beach Hibiscus, Linden Hibiscus, Cotton Tree, Baru Baru, Bebaru, Mahoe

  Chinese Name : 黄槿

Sea Hibiscus,Beach Hibiscus,Linden Hibiscus,Cotton Tree,Baru Baru,Bebaru,Mahoe
  • Record Info
    • Featured in '1001 Garden Plants in Singapore' Book (2ed) :
  • Life Stage & Characteristics
    • Plant Division :
      Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
      Plant Growth Form :
      Tree (Shrubby (1m-5m); Small (6m-15m))
      Lifespan (in Singapore) :
      Mode of Nutrition :
      Plant Shape :
      Maximum Height :
      15 m
  • Biogeography
    • Native Distribution :
      Pantropic - Tropical Africa, Americas, Pacific, Indian Ocean, Southern China, Malesia, Northern Australia
      Native Habitat :
      Terrestrial (Coastal Forest), Shoreline (Mangrove Forest; Sandy Beach)
      Preferred Climate Zone :
      Local Conservation Status :
      Native to Singapore (Common)
  • Description & Ethnobotany
    • Plant Morphology :
      Growth Form: Small shrubby tree, up to 15m height in rich soils. Crown spreading to rounded, with many branches.
      Trunk: Greyish brown with numerous reddish-brown lenticels. Suckers often form at base of tree.
      Foliage: Leaves heart-shaped with pointed tip and finely-serrated margins, dark green above, covered with fine whitish hairs below, spirally arranged along stem.
      Flowers: Produced in few-flowered inflorescences, each flower large, funnel-shaped, bright yellow with purple eye, opening at around 9am, maturing to dull orange and dull pink in afternoon, before closing and dropping off at around 4pm. Sepals form a pointed-tip cup. Free-flowering.
      Fruits: Rounded explosive capsules, brown when mature, splitting into 5 parts to disperse numerous small kidney-shaped seeds.
      Habitat :
      Sandy or rocky coasts, brackish riverbanks, and mangroves.
      Similar :
      Resembles another mangrove inhabitant Thespesia populnea (Portia Tree), which has hairless, more fleshy untoothed leaves, and yellow flowers with yellow eye, as well as sepals that form a smooth-edged cup.
      Cultivation :
      Fast-growng, requiring little maintenance, tolerates poor soils. Prune away suckers from base of trunk, if single or double trunk is desired. Easily propagated by seeds, stem cuttings and basal suckers. Roots easily, large branches can be cut and rooted in polybags to form 'instant trees'.
      Ethnobotanical Uses :
      Edible Plant Parts (Edible Leaves)
      Food (Fruit & Vegetable; Herb & Spice)
      Edible Plant Parts (Edible Leaves), Medicinal, Timber & Products
      [Others]: Medicinal: Mature leaves used to treat fevers and coughs, leaf sap used as laxative or a lubricant for childbirth. Flowers used to treat ear infections and abscesses. Bark mucilage prescribed for dysentry in Philippines. Food: Young leaves eaten as vegetable. Products: Lightweight wood made into planks, outrigger canoes and household implements. Fibre from inner bark used to make ropes, fishing nets and hammocks. Wood can be rubbed vigorously with another piece of hardwood to start a fire. Seeds used in oinments, perfumes and oils for hair.
  • Landscaping Features
    • Desirable Plant Features :
      Ornamental Flowers, Ornamental Foliage
      Plant & Rootzone Preference/Tolerance :
      Waterlogged Soils (Drains Site), Saline Soils / Salt Spray, Easy to Grow
      Landscape Uses :
      Coastal, Beachfront / Shoreline, Phytoremediation (Ground / Water Contaminant(s))
      Thematic Landscaping :
      Naturalistic Garden
  • Fauna, Pollination & Dispersal
    • Associated Fauna :
      Caterpillar Food Plant (Leaves; Associated with: Odontoptilum angulatum, Rapala pheretima, Rapala suffusa), Bee-Attracting
      Seed / Spore Dispersal :
      Abiotic (Explosive Dehiscence)
  • Plant Care & Propagation
    • Light Preference :
      Full Sun
      Water Preference :
      Moderate Water
      Plant Growth Rate :
      Maintenance Requirements :
      Propagation Method :
      Seed, Stem Cutting, Sucker, Air-Layering
  • Foliar
    • Foliage Retention :
      Mature Foliage Colour(s) :
      Mature Foliage Texture(s) :
      Smooth, Velvety / Furry / Tomentose, Thin
      Foliar Type :
      Simple / Unifoliate
      Foliar Arrangement Along Stem :
      Foliar Venation :
      Pinnate / Net
      Foliar Apex / Tip :
      Leaf Area Index (LAI) * for Green Plot Ratio :
      4.0 (Tree - Dense Canopy)
  • Non-Foliar & Storage
    • Trunk Type (Non-Palm) :
      Bark Colour(s) :
      Greyish brown
      Mature Bark Texture :
      Stem Type & Modification :
      Root Type :
      Underground (Tap Root; Fibrous Root)
  • Floral (Angiosperm)
    • Flower & Plant Sexuality :
      Bisexual Flowers
      Flower Colour(s) :
      Pink, Red, Yellow / Golden
      Flower Symmetry :
      Inflorescence Size :
      Remarks (Flowers open yellow in morning , matures to dull orange and pink in afternoon, before being shed in evening.)
      Flowering Period :
      Flowering Opening Time :
      Flower Lifespan On Plant :
      1 Day
      Flowering Habit :
  • Fruit, Seed & Spore
    • Mature Fruit Colour(s) [Angiosperms & Gymnosperms] :
      Fruit Type :
      Dehiscent Dry Fruit (Capsule)
The information given on this website has been compiled from reference works on medicinal plants and/or pron only. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Reliance on this information is strictly at your own risk. You should always consult your physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.

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