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  Horsfieldia irya (Gaertn.) Warb.
  Family Name : Myristicaceae

  Synonyms : Myristica micrantha, Horsfieldia acuminata, Myristica javanica, Horsfieldia subglobosa, Horsfieldia congestiflora, Myristica irya

  Common Names : Pianggu, Piasau Mamau, Salinguat, Lempoyang Paya, Penggu, Chendarah, Peredanh Burung, Kalapa Tiyung, Kalak Pucung, Darah-Darah, Kumpang

Pianggu,Piasau Mamau,Salinguat,Lempoyang Paya,Penggu,Chendarah,Peredanh Burung,Kalapa Tiyung,Kalak Pucung,Darah-Darah,Kumpang
  • Record Info
    • Featured in '1001 Garden Plants in Singapore' Book (2ed) :
  • Life Stage & Characteristics
    • Plant Division :
      Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
      Plant Growth Form :
      Tree (Big (>30m); Medium (16m-30m))
      Lifespan (in Singapore) :
      Mode of Nutrition :
      Plant Shape :
      Maximum Height :
      25 m to 30 m
      Tree / Palm - Trunk Diameter :
      1.1 m
  • Biogeography
    • Native Distribution :
      Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Borneo, Java, southern Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea, Caroline Islands, and the Solomon Islands
      Native Habitat :
      Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest; Secondary Rainforest; Coastal Forest; Freshwater Swamp Forest; Riverine), Shoreline (Mangrove Forest)
      Preferred Climate Zone :
      Tropical, Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal
      Local Conservation Status :
      Native to Singapore (Critically Endangered (CR))
  • Description & Ethnobotany
    • Plant Morphology :
      Growth Form: It is a tree that can grow up to 40 m tall, with prop-roots, and buttress roots that are 3 m tall, 2 m out, and 10 cm thick.
      Trunk: Often slightly buttressed, stilt roots and pneumatophores occasionally present. Bark brown, shallowly fissured and flakey, exudates red and somewhat sticky; under-bark reddish.
      Foliage: Its alternate, stalked leaves have membranous leaf blades that are often curved towards the tip, are elliptic-oblong to lance-shaped, 10–35 by 3–9 cm, and possess irregular white marks above.
      Flowers: The plant is dioecious. Its flowers develop in flowering shoots (inflorescence). Its male inflorescences are 4–18 by 3–10 cm, and have flowers in clusters of 3–10. Its female inflorescences are 2–8 cm long. Its flowers are yellow, and its male flowers are smaller than its female flowers.
      Fruits: Its fruiting bodies (infructescences) contain 2–8 fruits each. Its fruits are round, hairless, finely granular, yellowish orange, and are 1.5–3 cm across. Its round seeds are covered by an orange-red to red coverings (arils).
      Habitat :
      It grows in primary and secondary forests, coastal swamps or riverine areas, up to 450 m altitude. It is known locally in Pulau Tekong.
      Associated Fauna :
      Its fruits are eaten by monkeys and hornbills.
      Cultivation :
      Tolerant of waterlogging and moderate salinity. Propagate by seeds and stem cuttings.
      Etymology :
      Genus epithet 'Horsfieldia' named after American physician and naturalist, Thomas Horsfield (1773-1859), who travelled to Java, Indonesia in 1800, where he collected local plants and animals on behalf of his friend, Thomas Stamford Raffles, who was lieutenant-governer of Java then under the East India Company's control. Species epithet 'irya' derived from Sanskrit term meaning 'vigorous' or 'active', usage unclear.
      Ethnobotanical Uses :
      Edible Plant Parts (Edible Fruits)
      Food (Fruit & Vegetable)
      Edible Plant Parts (Edible Fruits), Medicinal (A decoction of the bark can be used as a gargle for sore throats. Latex used to clean ulcers. Leaves used to extract pus from boils and sores. Macerated root drank with lime juice as remedy for toxic snake bites.), Timber & Products (Minor hardwood species. Wood used for bottle lids. Its seeds contain an oleo-resin which can be used to make varnish.), Cultural / Religious (

      Heritage Tree :                                                             
      There is currently one individual of Horsfieldia irya listed as a Heritage Tree in Singapore. It can be found at the Singapore Botanic Gardens. To find out more about this tree, please visit the Heritage Tree Register.
      [Others]: Products: Essential oils from scented flowers used in perfumery.
  • Landscaping Features
    • Landscaping :
      It is suitable for planting in parks and in along streetscapes.
      Desirable Plant Features :
      Ornamental Flowers, Ornamental Foliage, Fragrant (Flowers: Day, Time Independent)
      Plant & Rootzone Preference/Tolerance :
      Waterlogged Soils (Drains Site), Well-Drained Soils, Saline Soils / Salt Spray, Fertile Loamy Soils, [Remarks] (Sandy soils)
      Landscape Uses :
      General, Roadside Tree / Palm, Parks & Gardens, Coastal, Riverine, Shade Providing Tree / Palm
      Thematic Landscaping :
      Golden Garden, Naturalistic Garden
  • Fauna, Pollination & Dispersal
    • Associated Fauna :
      Bird-Attracting (Fruits)
      Pollination Method(s) :
      Biotic (Fauna)
      Seed / Spore Dispersal :
      Biotic (Fauna) (Vertebrates (Other Mammal)), Abiotic (Water)
  • Plant Care & Propagation
    • Light Preference :
      Full Sun
      Water Preference :
      Lots of Water, Moderate Water
      Plant Growth Rate :
      Maintenance Requirements :
      Propagation Method :
      Seed, Stem Cutting
  • Foliar
    • Foliage Retention :
      Mature Foliage Colour(s) :
      Mature Foliage Texture(s) :
      Smooth, Raised / Sunken Veins
      Foliar Type :
      Simple / Unifoliate
      Foliar Arrangement Along Stem :
      Foliar Attachment to Stem :
      Foliar Shape(s) :
      Non-Palm Foliage (Lanceolate; Elliptical; Oblong)
      Foliar Venation :
      Pinnate / Net
      Foliar Margin :
      Foliar Apex / Tip :
      Foliar Base :
      Rounded / Obtuse
      Typical Foliar Area :
      Notophyll ( 20.25cm2 - 45 cm2 )
      Leaf Area Index (LAI) * for Green Plot Ratio :
      3.0 (Tree - Intermediate Canopy)
  • Non-Foliar & Storage
    • Trunk Type (Non-Palm) :
      Mature Bark Texture :
      Fissured, Cracked
      Stem Type & Modification :
      Root Type :
      Underground (Tap Root; Fibrous Root), Aboveground (Buttress Root; Prop / Stilt Root; Pneumatophore / Pencil Root)
  • Floral (Angiosperm)
    • Flower & Plant Sexuality :
      Unisexual Flowers (Dioecious)
      Flower Colour(s) :
      Orange, Yellow / Golden
      Flower Grouping :
      Cluster / Inflorescence
      Flower Location :
      Flower Symmetry :
      Flower Size :
      Remarks (1.0 - 2.5mm)
      Inflorescence Type :
      Ovary Position :
      Superior / Hypogynous
      Flowering Period :
      Once Yearly
      Flower Lifespan On Plant :
      Several Days
      Flowering Habit :
  • Fruit, Seed & Spore
    • Mature Fruit Colour(s) [Angiosperms & Gymnosperms] :
      Orange, Yellow / Golden
      Fruit Classification :
      Simple Fruit
      Fruit Type :
      Fleshy Fruit (Non-Accessory Fruit: Drupe)
The information given on this website has been compiled from reference works on medicinal plants and/or pron only. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Reliance on this information is strictly at your own risk. You should always consult your physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.

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