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  Mangifera caesia Jack
  Family Name : Anacardiaceae

  Synonyms : Mangifera kemanga

  Common Names : Binjai

  • Record Info
  • Life Stage & Characteristics
    • Plant Division :
      Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
      Plant Growth Form :
      Tree (Big (>30m))
      Lifespan (in Singapore) :
      Mode of Nutrition :
      Plant Shape :
      Broad / Mushroom / Hemispherical, Irregular
      Maximum Height :
      45 m
  • Biogeography
    • Native Distribution :
      Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Borneo.
      Native Habitat :
      Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest; Freshwater Swamp Forest; Riverine)
      Preferred Climate Zone :
      Local Conservation Status :
      Native to Singapore (Critically Endangered (CR))
  • Description & Ethnobotany
    • Plant Morphology :
      Growth Form: It is a large tree, up to 45 m tall.
      Foliage: Its alternate, stalked leaves are thick and leathery, about 7.5-41.5 cm long and 2.5-11 cm wide.
      Flowers: Its violet to lilac flowers are up to 1 cm long each, borne on a branched inflorescences up to 40 cm long.
      Fruits: Its fleshy fruits are pear-shaped drupes, that ripen to pale brown, 10-19 cm long and 5-10 cm wide, containing a single pink seed enclosed with a hard endocarp.
      Habitat :
      It grows in lowland primary or swamp forests, and also along riverbanks, up to 450 m altitude.
      Associated Fauna :
      Its flowers are insect-pollinated. The fruits are eaten by mammals. It is also the food plant for the mango fruit borer or mango fruit boring caterpillar (Citripestis eutraphera).
      Cultivation :
      It can be propagated by seed.
      Etymology :
      Mangi, Indian mango, vernacular name for a Mangifera species; Latin caesia, lavender colour, referring to the colour of the flowers.
      Ethnobotanical Uses :
      Edible Plant Parts (Edible Fruits)
      Food (Fruit & Vegetable: The young leaves are used to prepare ‘lalab’ (aleafy vegetables dish). The fresh fruits are eaten. The fruits are used to make home-made creamy juices, and eaten as a tamarind substitute. They are also utilised as ingredients in the preparation of ‘sambal’ (a type of chilli-spice mixture), or ‘rojak’ (a fruit and vegetable salad dish).)
      Cultural / Religious (

      Heritage Tree :                                          
      There are several individuals of Mangifera caesia listed as Heritage Trees in Singapore. They are found all over various parts of Singapore. To find out more about these trees, please visit the Heritage Tree Register.
  • Landscaping Features
    • Landscaping :
      It is a widely-known, cultivated fruit tree. It is a tree suitable for large gardens, and parks.
      Desirable Plant Features :
      Ornamental Flowers, Ornamental Form
      Plant & Rootzone Preference/Tolerance :
      Moist Soils, Waterlogged Soils (Drains Site), Well-Drained Soils
      Landscape Uses :
      Parks & Gardens, Riverine
  • Fauna, Pollination & Dispersal
    • Pollination Method(s) :
      Biotic (Fauna)
      Seed / Spore Dispersal :
      Biotic (Fauna)
  • Plant Care & Propagation
    • Light Preference :
      Full Sun
      Water Preference :
      Lots of Water, Moderate Water
      Propagation Method :
  • Foliar
    • Foliage Retention :
      Mature Foliage Colour(s) :
      Mature Foliage Texture(s) :
      Foliar Type :
      Simple / Unifoliate
      Foliar Arrangement Along Stem :
      Alternate, Rosulate / Rosette
      Foliar Attachment to Stem :
      Foliar Shape(s) :
      Non-Palm Foliage (Lanceolate; Elliptical)
      Foliar Venation :
      Pinnate / Net
      Foliar Margin :
      Leaf Area Index (LAI) * for Green Plot Ratio :
      3.0 (Tree - Intermediate Canopy)
  • Floral (Angiosperm)
    • Flower & Plant Sexuality :
      Bisexual Flowers
      Flower Colour(s) :
      Flower Grouping :
      Cluster / Inflorescence
  • Fruit, Seed & Spore
    • Mature Fruit Colour(s) [Angiosperms & Gymnosperms] :
      Brown, Cream / Off-White, Yellow / Golden
      Fruit Classification :
      Simple Fruit
      Fruit Type :
      Fleshy Fruit (Non-Accessory Fruit: Drupe)
The information given on this website has been compiled from reference works on medicinal plants and/or pron only. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Reliance on this information is strictly at your own risk. You should always consult your physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.

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