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  Ploiarium alternifolium (Vahl) Melch.
  Family Name : Bonnetiaceae

  Common Names : Cicada Tree, Riang Riang, Reriang, Kayu Kuat (Kuat Kuat), Keriang, Sesudu Paya

Cicada Tree,Riang Riang,Reriang,Kayu Kuat (Kuat Kuat),Keriang,Sesudu Paya
  • Record Info
  • Life Stage & Characteristics
    • Plant Division :
      Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
      Plant Growth Form :
      Tree (Small (6m-15m)), Shrub (Woody), Aquatic & Hydrophyte (Waterside / Marginal)
      Lifespan (in Singapore) :
      Mode of Nutrition :
      Maximum Height :
      15 m
  • Biogeography
    • Native Distribution :
      Indochina, Peninsula Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra, Borneo, Singapore
      Native Habitat :
      Terrestrial (Mountain; Secondary Rainforest; Freshwater Swamp Forest; Riverine; Disturbed Area / Open Ground)
      Preferred Climate Zone :
      Tropical, Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal
      Local Conservation Status :
      Native to Singapore (Common)
  • Description & Ethnobotany
    • Plant Morphology :
      Growth Form: It is a woody shrub or small tree typically growing up to 15 m. Plants growing in the river usually grow up to 0.3 m, while those growing in swamps on peaty soil can reach up to 30 m in height.
      Roots: When grown in swamps, large numbers of thin stilt roots emerge from the trunk to help anchor the tree in the soil. The roots can begin to grow on the trunk up to 2m above ground.
      Foliage: Its alternate, stalkless leaves have fleshy, shiny leaf blades that are 5–11.5 by 1.3–4 cm, with scarcely visible veins. The leaf margin is pink and lined with small teeth (serrulate). Leaves are densely arranged in a spiral formation along the branches.
      Flowers: Its 2.5–3 cm-wide star-shaped flowers have pink tinged green sepals, and pink-tipped white petals.  The flowers possess a green stigma that splits into 5 parts at the tip and have numerous yellow stamens. The petals are approximately egg-shaped and curled slightly inwards along the margin.
      Fruits: Its elongate-ovoid fruits are 5-valved capsules that turn dark purple when ripe, 1.5–2 cm long and contain many tiny, slender and elongate seeds that are released when they split open lengthwise like an umbrella when ripe.
      Habitat :
      It grows in rocky rivers, secondary forest, swamp forest, and occasionally on mountain tops. In Singapore, this species is also found in adinandra belukar (secondary forest on degraded soil, dominated by tiup tiup, Adinandra dumosa).
      Associated Fauna :
      Its flowers are pollinated by insects.
      Cultivation :
      It can be propagated by seed or stem cutting.
      Ethnobotanical Uses :
      Medicinal (A decoction of the leaves and roots is used in treating stomachache.), Timber & Products (Its durable and very strong timber is used in making fence- and house-posts, or floor and roof supports.)
  • Landscaping Features
    • Landscaping :
      It is suitable for streetscapes, parks and gardens for its attractive cherry-blossom like flowers.
      Desirable Plant Features :
      Ornamental Flowers, Ornamental Foliage
      Plant & Rootzone Preference/Tolerance :
      Moist Soils, Waterlogged Soils (Drains Site), Well-Drained Soils, Poor Infertile Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils
      Landscape Uses :
      General, Roadside Tree / Palm, Parks & Gardens, Riverine, Marsh / Bog
      Thematic Landscaping :
      Water Garden, Marsh Garden
  • Fauna, Pollination & Dispersal
    • Pollination Method(s) :
      Biotic (Fauna) (Insects (Butterfly, Moth); Insects (Bee))
      Seed / Spore Dispersal :
      Abiotic (Wind; Explosive Dehiscence)
  • Plant Care & Propagation
    • Light Preference :
      Full Sun
      Water Preference :
      Lots of Water, Moderate Water
      Maintenance Requirements :
      Propagation Method :
      Seed, Stem Cutting
  • Foliar
    • Foliage Retention :
      Mature Foliage Colour(s) :
      Mature Foliage Texture(s) :
      Smooth, Glossy / Shiny
      Prominent Young Flush Colour(s) :
      [Remarks] (Green with reddish-pink margins)
      Foliar Type :
      Simple / Unifoliate
      Foliar Arrangement Along Stem :
      Foliar Attachment to Stem :
      Foliar Shape(s) :
      Non-Palm Foliage (Obovate; Oblong)
      Foliar Margin :
      Foliar Apex / Tip :
      Foliar Base :
      Typical Foliar Area :
      Microphyll ( 2.25cm2 - 20.25 cm2 )
      Leaf Area Index (LAI) * for Green Plot Ratio :
      4.0 (Tree - Dense Canopy)
  • Floral (Angiosperm)
    • Flower & Plant Sexuality :
      Bisexual Flowers
      Flower Colour(s) :
      Pink, White
      FlowerTexture(s) :
      Flower Grouping :
      Cluster / Inflorescence
      Flower Location :
      Flower Symmetry :
      Individual Flower Shape :
      Stellate / Star-shaped
      Flower Size :
      2 cm
      Flowering Habit :
  • Fruit, Seed & Spore
    • Mature Fruit Colour(s) [Angiosperms & Gymnosperms] :
      Brown, Purple
      Mature Fruit Texture(s) :
      Fruit Classification :
      Simple Fruit
      Fruit Type :
      Dehiscent Dry Fruit (Capsule)
  • References
    • The DNA of Singapore.
      Yong J, Tan PY, Nor Hafiz Hassan, Tan SN. 2010. A Selection of Plants for Greening of Waterways and Waterbodies in the Tropics. Singapore: Chung Printing . 480 pp.
The information given on this website has been compiled from reference works on medicinal plants and/or pron only. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Reliance on this information is strictly at your own risk. You should always consult your physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.

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