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  Tarenna fragrans (Blume) Koord. & Valeton
  Family Name : Rubiaceae

  Common Names : River Tarenna

River Tarenna
  • Record Info
    • Featured in '1001 Garden Plants in Singapore' Book (2ed) :
  • Life Stage & Characteristics
    • Plant Division :
      Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
      Plant Growth Form :
      Tree (Small (6m-15m)), Shrub (Woody)
      Lifespan (in Singapore) :
      Mode of Nutrition :
      Plant Shape :
  • Biogeography
    • Native Distribution :
      Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, and Borneo
      Native Habitat :
      Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest; Secondary Rainforest; Riverine)
      Preferred Climate Zone :
      Local Conservation Status :
      Native to Singapore (Endangered (EN))
  • Description & Ethnobotany
    • Plant Morphology :
      Growth Form: It is a small low-branching tree or densely-branching big shrub, up to 2.5 m tall. May attain somewhat shorter heights if grown under partial shade, in limited spaces or rocky sites.
      Foliage: Its stalked leaves have leathery blades that are usually oval to drop-shaped with a pointed tip, shiny yellowish-green, 7.6–20 by 3.2–7.6 cm, and have 7–13 pairs of veins prominent below. Young petioles and stems pubescent.
      Stems: Bark reddish-brown, scaly to slightly peeling.
      Flowers: Its flowers are white, withering yellowish, 1.3 cm wide, fragrant, and arranged in 5–15 cm wide many-flowered clusters. Species observed to exhibit synchronous blooming a few times per year under local conditions.
      Fruits: Its berry fruit is round, green turning purplish or bluish-black when mature, 1.5 cm long, and has many small brown seeds.
      Habitat :
      It grows in inland forests and coastal areas. It occurs locally in Pulau Ubin, Pulau Tekong, and the Western Catchment Area.
      Associated Fauna :
      Its flowers are pollinated by birds.
      Cultivation :
      Likes moisture, withstands waterlogged and wet soils. Tends to remain shrubby at drier sites. Propagate by seeds, stem cuttings or air-layering.
      Etymology :
      Genus epithet 'Tarenna' derived from Sinhalese name 'Maha-tarnana' for a plant from this genus -- Tarenna asiatica (synonym: Webera corymbosa), which is distributed from the Indian sub-continent to Indonesia (Borneo). Species epithet 'fragrans' means 'fragrant', a reference to the plant's scented flowers.
      Ethnobotanical Uses :
  • Landscaping Features
    • Landscaping :
      It is suitable for parks and streetscape planting for its spectacular yellow fragrant blooms.
      Desirable Plant Features :
      Ornamental Flowers, Fragrant (Flowers: Day)
      Plant & Rootzone Preference/Tolerance :
      Moist Soils, Waterlogged Soils (Drains Site), Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils
      Landscape Uses :
      General, Roadside Tree / Palm, Parks & Gardens, Coastal, Hedge / Screening, Riverine, Skyrise / Balcony, Container Planting
      Thematic Landscaping :
      Golden Garden, Naturalistic Garden, Fragrant / Aromatherapy Garden, Bird & Wildlife Garden
      Usage Hazards / Cons :
      Low Crown / Clearance
  • Fauna, Pollination & Dispersal
    • Associated Fauna :
      Pollination Method(s) :
      Biotic (Fauna)
      Seed / Spore Dispersal :
      Biotic (Fauna)
  • Plant Care & Propagation
    • Light Preference :
      Full Sun, Semi-Shade
      Water Preference :
      Lots of Water, Moderate Water
      Plant Growth Rate :
      Maintenance Requirements :
      Propagation Method :
      Seed, Stem Cutting, Air-Layering
  • Foliar
    • Foliage Retention :
      Mature Foliage Colour(s) :
      Mature Foliage Texture(s) :
      Foliar Type :
      Simple / Unifoliate
      Foliar Arrangement Along Stem :
      Foliar Attachment to Stem :
      Foliar Shape(s) :
      Non-Palm Foliage (Elliptical; Oblong)
      Foliar Venation :
      Pinnate / Net
      Foliar Margin :
      Entire, Entire - Wavy / Undulate
      Foliar Apex / Tip :
      Foliar Base :
      Rounded / Obtuse
      Typical Foliar Area :
      Mesophyll ( 45cm2 - 182.25 cm2 )
      Leaf Area Index (LAI) * for Green Plot Ratio :
      4.0 (Tree - Dense Canopy)
  • Non-Foliar & Storage
    • Trunk Type (Non-Palm) :
      Bark Colour(s) :
      Mature Bark Texture :
      Scaly, Peeling / Flaking / Papery
      Stem Type & Modification :
      Root Type :
      Underground (Tap Root; Fibrous Root)
  • Floral (Angiosperm)
    • Flower & Plant Sexuality :
      Bisexual Flowers
      Flower Colour(s) :
      Cream / Off-White, Orange, White, Yellow / Golden
      Flower Grouping :
      Cluster / Inflorescence
      Flower Location :
      Flower Symmetry :
      Individual Flower Shape :
      Inflorescence Type :
      Compound Corymb
      Inflorescence Size :
      Remarks (Flowers open white, changing to cream and then yellow-orange over a few days.)
      Flowering Period :
      [Remarks] (A few times per year)
      Flowering Opening Time :
      Flower Lifespan On Plant :
      Several Days
      Flowering Habit :
  • Fruit, Seed & Spore
    • Mature Fruit Colour(s) [Angiosperms & Gymnosperms] :
      Black, Purple
      Fruit Classification :
      Simple Fruit
      Fruit Type :
      Fleshy Fruit (Non-Accessory Fruit: Berry)

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