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  Oncosperma horridum (Griff.) Scheff.
  Family Name : Arecaceae (Palmae)

  Common Names : Bayas

  • Record Info
  • Life Stage & Characteristics
    • Plant Growth Form :
      Maximum Height :
      20 m
  • Biogeography
    • Native Distribution :
      Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, and Borneo
      Native Habitat :
      Preferred Climate Zone :
      Local Conservation Status :
      Native to Singapore
  • Description & Ethnobotany
    • Plant Morphology :
      Growth Form: It is a slender palm that grows in clusters of 4–6 stems or more, and has very dense crowns. Its stem can grow up to 20 m tall, and is covered with black prickles.
      Foliage: It produces pinnate leaves, whose leaflets are arranged closely and neatly on both sides of the rachis, like the teeth of a comb.
      Flowers: Its spirally arranged flowers are unisexual, and develop on up to 61 cm-long flowering shoots.
      Fruits: Its fleshy fruits are round, slightly flattened, waxy, black, one-seeded, and 1.5–1.8 cm across, with finely pimpled surfaces. Its seeds are round.
      Habitat :
      It grows in inland forests, including hillsides, up to 914 m altitude. It occurs locally in the Central Catchment Nature Reserve, and Pulau Tekong.
      Etymology :
      Greek onkos, protuberance; Greek sperma, seed, referring to the surfaces of its seeds; Latin horridum, very prickly, referring to the presence of prickles on this species’ trunks
      Ethnobotanical Uses :
  • Landscaping Features
    • Usage Hazards / Cons :
      Spines/Thorns - Trunk
  • Plant Care & Propagation
    • Light Preference :
      Full Sun, Semi-Shade
      Water Preference :
      Moderate Water
      Plant Growth Rate :
  • Foliar
    • Mature Foliage Colour(s) :
      Foliar Shape(s) :
      Palm Fronds
  • Fruit, Seed & Spore
    • Mature Fruit Colour(s) [Angiosperms & Gymnosperms] :
  • References
    • Keng, H., S.C. Chin and H.T.W. Tan. 1998. The Concise Flora of Singapore Volume II: Monocotyledons. Singapore: Singapore University Press. 215
      LaFrankie Jr., J. V.. 2010. Trees of Tropical Asia: An Illustrated Guide to Diversity.. Manilla.: Black Tree Publications, Inc.. 750 pp.

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