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  Rhizophora apiculata Blume
  Family Name : Rhizophoraceae

  Synonyms : Rhizophora candelaria, Rhizophora conjugata, Rhizophora lamarckii

  Common Names : Bakau Minyak, Bakau tandok, Bakau akik

Bakau Minyak,Bakau tandok,Bakau akik
  • Record Info
  • Life Stage & Characteristics
    • Plant Division :
      Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
      Plant Growth Form :
      Tree (Big (>30m); Medium (16m-30m))
      Lifespan (in Singapore) :
      Mode of Nutrition :
      Plant Shape :
      Maximum Height :
      20 m
  • Biogeography
    • Native Distribution :
      Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, including Singapore, tropical Australia, Micronesia and the west Pacific Islands
      Native Habitat :
      Shoreline (Mangrove Forest)
      Preferred Climate Zone :
      Tropical, Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal
      Local Conservation Status :
      Native to Singapore (Common)
  • Description & Ethnobotany
    • Plant Morphology :
      Growth Form: Medium to large-sized erect mangrove tree growing up or over 30 m. 
      Crown: Conical crown
      Trunk: Can reach up to 50 cm in diameter, bark is dark grey.
      Roots: Conspicuous, arching stilt roots extending up to 5 m up the stem, and sometimes has aerial roots from the branches.
      Foliage: Dark green, smooth and leathery leaves are ellipitic with entire leaf margin and reddish leaf stalks, measuring 7 - 19 by 3.5 - 8 cm. Long, red stipules emerge from the leaf bases.
      Flowers: Flowers are composed of cream-coloured, linear petals arranged in a cross-shaped pattern. Prominent, yellow sepals are fleshy and wider than the petals. They occur in pairs and are held on dark grey stalks. Flower buds are broadly elliptic and finely fissured.
      Fruits: Brown, pear-shaped fruit hang with the smaller end pointed down. A long, cylindrical seedling emerges from the smaller end, while the fruit is still attached to the parent plant. This condition is known as viviparity.
      Habitat :
      Occurs on deep, soft and muddy soils that are flooded by normal high tides, sometimes tidal waterways with strong, permanent freshwater input is preferred.
      Cultivation :
      The seedling, known as a propagule, is planted by placing it vertically in soil. 
      Ethnobotanical Uses :
      Timber & Products (Wood used for foundation piles, beams, outriggers of canoes, furniture, firewood and making of charcoal.), Agriculture / Forestry (Sometimes planted along fish ponds to protect dikes and bunds. )
      [Others]: This species' extensive set of prop roots help to disperse the destructive energy carried by strong tidal waves, helping to protect the shoreline and surrounding areas.
  • Landscaping Features
    • Plant & Rootzone Preference/Tolerance :
      Waterlogged Soils
      Landscape Uses :
      Coastal, Riverine
  • Fauna, Pollination & Dispersal
    • Pollination Method(s) :
      Biotic (Fauna)
      Seed / Spore Dispersal :
      Abiotic (Water)
  • Plant Care & Propagation
    • Light Preference :
      Full Sun
      Water Preference :
      Lots of Water
      Plant Growth Rate :
      Propagation Method :
      Viviparious Propagule
  • Foliar
    • Foliage Retention :
      Mature Foliage Colour(s) :
      Foliar Type :
      Simple / Unifoliate
      Foliar Arrangement Along Stem :
      Foliar Attachment to Stem :
      Foliar Venation :
      Pinnate / Net
      Foliar Margin :
  • Floral (Angiosperm)
    • Flower & Plant Sexuality :
      Bisexual Flowers
      Flower Colour(s) :
      Cream / Off-White
      Flower Grouping :
      Cluster / Inflorescence
      Flower Symmetry :
      Individual Flower Shape :
      Cruciform / Cross-shaped
  • Fruit, Seed & Spore
    • Mature Fruit Colour(s) [Angiosperms & Gymnosperms] :
The information given on this website has been compiled from reference works on medicinal plants and/or pron only. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Reliance on this information is strictly at your own risk. You should always consult your physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.

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