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  Avicennia officinalis L.
  Family Name : Acanthaceae

  Synonyms : Avicennia tomentosa

  Common Names : Api Api Ludat

Api Api Ludat
  • Record Info
  • Life Stage & Characteristics
    • Plant Division :
      Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants)
      Plant Growth Form :
      Tree (Medium (16m-30m); Small (6m-15m))
      Lifespan (in Singapore) :
      Mode of Nutrition :
  • Biogeography
    • Native Distribution :
      East Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, India, Southeast Asia, including Singapore, New Guinea, southern Australia
      Native Habitat :
      Shoreline (Mangrove Forest)
      Preferred Climate Zone :
      Tropical, Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal
      Local Conservation Status :
      Native to Singapore (Common)
  • Description & Ethnobotany
    • Plant Morphology :
      Growth Form: Medium size tree, usually height reaching up to 12 - 15 m, sometimes 20 m. 
      Trunk: Smooth bark with lenticels, yellowish-green to brownish-grey colour.
      Roots: Has thin, pencil-like pneunatophores which are covered with lenticels.
      Foliage: Obovate or obovate-oblong leaves with a rounded top, dark green above and yellowish-green underneath, measuring up to 12.5 by 6 cm, arranged in simple, opposite decussate manner.  Upper surface is covered with many glandular dots. 
      Flowers: Orange-yellow flowers measuring 10 - 15 mm across, rancid smelling and covered with short, soft hairs on both surfaces. Stamens are longer than the corolla, ovary covered with short dense hairs and tips of petals unfold irregularly and blacken with age. 
      Fruits: Fruit is densely covered with short hairs, broadly ovate with a short apical beak, measuring about 3 cm. All Avicennia spp. exhibits crytovivipary, in which the embryo germinates within the fruit but does not enlarge sufficiently to break through the fruit wall.
      Habitat :
      Found in the intermediate estuarine zone in the lower intertidal region. Occurring in the landward margins of mangrove swamps, usually along tidal river banks and river mouths.
      Etymology :
      Avicennia is named in honour of the Persian physician, Avicenna (980 - 1037).
      Ethnobotanical Uses :
      Edible Plant Parts (Edible Fruits)
      Timber & Products (Wood is used as fuel and resin in bark is used as a contraceptive.)
  • Landscaping Features
    • Plant & Rootzone Preference/Tolerance :
      Waterlogged Soils, Saline Soils / Salt Spray, Fertile Loamy Soils
      Landscape Uses :
      Coastal, Riverine
  • Fauna, Pollination & Dispersal
    • Pollination Method(s) :
      Biotic (Fauna)
      Seed / Spore Dispersal :
      Abiotic (Water)
  • Plant Care & Propagation
    • Light Preference :
      Full Sun, Semi-Shade
      Water Preference :
      Lots of Water
      Plant Growth Rate :
      Potential Problems :
      Sooty mold and scale insects.
      Propagation Method :
      Viviparious Propagule
  • Foliar
    • Foliage Retention :
      Mature Foliage Colour(s) :
      Foliar Type :
      Simple / Unifoliate
      Foliar Arrangement Along Stem :
      Foliar Attachment to Stem :
      Foliar Venation :
      Pinnate / Net
      Foliar Margin :
  • Non-Foliar & Storage
    • Mature Bark Texture :
  • Floral (Angiosperm)
    • Flower & Plant Sexuality :
      Bisexual Flowers
      Flower Colour(s) :
      Orange, Yellow / Golden
      Flower Grouping :
      Cluster / Inflorescence
The information given on this website has been compiled from reference works on medicinal plants and/or pron only. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Reliance on this information is strictly at your own risk. You should always consult your physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.

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