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  Avicennia rumphiana
  Family Name : Acanthaceae

  Synonyms : Avicennia lanata

  Common Names : Api-api Bulu

Api-api Bulu
  • Record Info
  • Life Stage & Characteristics
    • Plant Division :
      Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants)
      Plant Growth Form :
      Tree (Medium (16m-30m); Small (6m-15m))
      Lifespan (in Singapore) :
      Mode of Nutrition :
  • Biogeography
    • Native Distribution :
      Southeast Asia, including Singapore, and Papua New Guinea
      Native Habitat :
      Preferred Climate Zone :
      Tropical, Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal
      Local Conservation Status :
      Native to Singapore (Common)
  • Description & Ethnobotany
    • Plant Morphology :
      Growth Form: Medium-sized to big tree, reaching up to 30 m tall. 
      Trunk: Dark grey and smooth bark, not buttressed but cylindrical, straight trunk when growing in a closed stand.
      Roots: Pencil-like pneumatophores emerge above ground from long shallow underground roots.
      Foliage: Ovate or elliptic leaves, simple, opposite, measuring up to 10 by 6 cm, thick, margin entire with non-curved edges, dark green above, beneath covered with dense, powdery hairs. Midrib of leaf is prominent beneath, covered with hairs, leaf stalk about 18 - 20 mm long.
      Flowers: Orange-yellow flowers are fragrant and clustered in three-branched heads, all parts densely covered with very fine hairs. Corolla smooth inside, hairy outside, lobes recurved.
      Fruits: Fruit is broadly ovoid, compressed, not more than about 18 mm long and covered with dense woolly hairs. All Avicennia spp. exhibits crytovivipary, in which the embryo germinates within the fruit but does not enlarge enough to break through the fruit wall.
      Habitat :
      Usually occurring in the downstream estuarine zone in the high intertidal region.
      Etymology :
      Avicennia is named in honour of the Persian physician, Avicenna (980 - 1037).
      Ethnobotanical Uses :
      Edible Plant Parts (Edible Fruits)
      Timber & Products (Wood used as firewood to smoke fish or rubber.)
  • Landscaping Features
    • Desirable Plant Features :
      Plant & Rootzone Preference/Tolerance :
      Waterlogged Soils
      Landscape Uses :
      Coastal, Riverine
  • Fauna, Pollination & Dispersal
    • Pollination Method(s) :
      Biotic (Fauna)
      Seed / Spore Dispersal :
      Abiotic (Water)
  • Plant Care & Propagation
    • Light Preference :
      Full Sun, Semi-Shade
      Water Preference :
      Lots of Water
      Potential Problems :
      Sooty mold
      Propagation Method :
      Viviparious Propagule
  • Foliar
    • Foliage Retention :
      Foliar Type :
      Simple / Unifoliate
      Foliar Arrangement Along Stem :
      Foliar Attachment to Stem :
      Foliar Venation :
      Pinnate / Net
      Foliar Margin :
  • Non-Foliar & Storage
    • Mature Bark Texture :
  • Floral (Angiosperm)
    • Flower Colour(s) :
      Orange, Yellow / Golden
      Flower Grouping :
      Cluster / Inflorescence
The information given on this website has been compiled from reference works on medicinal plants and/or pron only. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Reliance on this information is strictly at your own risk. You should always consult your physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.

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