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  Bruguiera sexangula (Lour.) Poir.
  Family Name : Rhizophoraceae

  Synonyms : Bruguiera angulata, Bruguiera australis, Bruguiera eriopetala, Bruguiera oxyphylla, Bruguiera parietosa, Bruguiera sexangularis, Bruguiera digitatum, Rhizophora angula, Rhizophora australis, Rhizophora eriopetala, Rhizophora plicata, Rhizophora plicata, Rhizophora polyandra, Rhizophora sexangula

  Common Names : Black Mangrove, Upriver Orange Mangrove, Busing, Tumu Berau, Tumu Mata Buaya

  Chinese Name : 海莲

Black Mangrove,Upriver Orange Mangrove,Busing,Tumu Berau,Tumu Mata Buaya
  • Record Info
  • Life Stage & Characteristics
    • Plant Division :
      Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
      Plant Growth Form :
      Tree (Medium (16m-30m)), Aquatic & Hydrophyte
      Lifespan (in Singapore) :
      Mode of Nutrition :
      Plant Shape :
      Conical, Columnar
      Maximum Height :
      30 m
  • Biogeography
    • Native Distribution :
      From India and Sri Lanka, to Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Philippines, south throughout Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, throughout Indonesia to Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and south to northern Australia and New Caledonia
      Native Habitat :
      Terrestrial, Shoreline (Mangrove Forest; Backshore; Mudflat)
      Preferred Climate Zone :
      Local Conservation Status :
      Native to Singapore (Critically Endangered (CR))
  • Description & Ethnobotany
    • Plant Morphology :
      Growth Form: It is a medium- to large-sized tree up to 30 m tall. When in flower, small clusters of the reddish calyxes can be seen throughout the tree.
      Trunk: The trunk has greyish bark with fissures and many lenticils.
      Roots: It has fin-like buttresses, occasionally with stilt roots, and commonly with kneed roots that rise above the substrate. 
      Foliage: Its opposite, long-stalked leaves have thinly fleshy, leathery leaf blades that are narrowly oval to oval-oblong, 8–20 by 3–7 cm. They are also smooth-margined, shiny green above, and yellow-green below.
      Flowers: The pendulous flowers are borne singly on short stalks at axils. The calyx is pale yellowish green to reddish orange, 3–3.5 cm, top-shaped, opening up into 10–14 pointed lobes at the distal end. Petals in 10–11, are 10–15 mm long, creamy orange, hairy, with 1–2 bristles or none at the tip.
      Fruits: The fruit develops within the calyx, and becomes enlarged when ripened. The single seed germinates within the calyx tube while attached to the parent plant, forming a green hypocotyl tipped by the radicle that emerges from the calyx. This is known as a propagule. The propagule is cigar-shaped, short, stout, ridged, hexagonal in cross-section, 6–12 by 1.5 cm, maturing from green to dark purple.
      Habitat :
      It grows in tidal waterways, coastal fish ponds and mangrove forests, on various substrates that are not frequently submerged. It occurs locally in Pulau Tekong and Pulau Pergam.
      Associated Fauna :
      Its flowers are pollinated by sunbirds. It is the preferred local food plant for the caterpillars of the moth, Olene mendosa.
      Cultivation :
      It is propagated by the propagules. Washed up propagules may be collected from the shore or mature ones (dark purple) produced on the tree, may be collected and planted straight into the potting medium. It can grow in freshwater conditions.
      Etymology :
      Latin Bruguiera, after J. G. Bruguieres (1750–1799), French expolorer; Greek gymnos, naked; Latin sexangula, six-angled, referring to the six-sided hypocotyl and radicle of this species
      Ethnobotanical Uses :
      Edible Plant Parts (Edible Fruits)
      Food (Fruit & Vegetable: The fruit is occasionally used as a betel quid in Malaysia and Indonesia. The fruit is also cooked, soaked overnight and eaten the next day in Sulawesi.)
      Medicinal (The fruit is used to treat shingles, and the roots and leaves to treat burns.), Timber & Products (It is used as firewood and charcoal. The timber is moderately durable and is used for fishing stakes, poles and house construction.)
      [Others]: Tannin, flavouring, and an adhesive are extracted from the bark.
  • Landscaping Features
    • Landscaping :
      This tree can be planted half-submerged along the water edges of ponds, reservoirs, and waterways, or in waterlogged soil for its attractive lush foliage and reddish flowers. It is rather slow-growing, hence minimum maintenance is needed.
      Desirable Plant Features :
      Ornamental Flowers, Ornamental Foliage, Ornamental Form
      Plant & Rootzone Preference/Tolerance :
      Moist Soils, Waterlogged Soils (Does not Drain Site), Saline Soils / Salt Spray, Fertile Loamy Soils, Alkaline (high pH) Soils
      Landscape Uses :
      Coastal, Beachfront / Shoreline, Riverine, Pond / Lake / River, Marsh / Bog
      Thematic Landscaping :
      Water Garden, Marsh Garden
  • Fauna, Pollination & Dispersal
    • Associated Fauna :
      Caterpillar (Moth) Food Plant (Leaves; Associated with)
      Pollination Method(s) :
      Biotic (Fauna)
      Seed / Spore Dispersal :
  • Plant Care & Propagation
    • Light Preference :
      Full Sun, Semi-Shade
      Water Preference :
      Lots of Water
      Plant Growth Rate :
      Propagation Method :
      Viviparious Propagule
  • Foliar
    • Foliage Retention :
      Mature Foliage Colour(s) :
      Mature Foliage Texture(s) :
      Foliar Type :
      Simple / Unifoliate
      Foliar Arrangement Along Stem :
      Foliar Attachment to Stem :
      Foliar Shape(s) :
      Non-Palm Foliage (Oval; Lanceolate; Oblong)
      Foliar Venation :
      Pinnate / Net
      Foliar Margin :
      Foliar Apex / Tip :
      Foliar Base :
  • Floral (Angiosperm)
    • Flower & Plant Sexuality :
      Bisexual Flowers
      Flower Colour(s) :
      Orange, Red, Yellow / Golden
      Flower Grouping :
      Flower Location :
      Flower Symmetry :
The information given on this website has been compiled from reference works on medicinal plants and/or pron only. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Reliance on this information is strictly at your own risk. You should always consult your physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.

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