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  Canthium confertum Korth.
  Family Name : Rubiaceae

  Common Names : Green Coffee, Kahwa Utan, Kemuning Jantan Hutan, Kopi Utan, Mata Keli Jantan

 
Green Coffee,Kahwa Utan,Kemuning Jantan Hutan,Kopi Utan,Mata Keli Jantan
  • Record Info
  • Life Stage & Characteristics
    • Plant Division :
      Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
      Plant Growth Form :
      Tree (Medium (16m-30m))
      Lifespan (in Singapore) :
      Perennial
      Mode of Nutrition :
      Autotrophic
      Plant Shape :
      Irregular
      Maximum Height :
      18 m
  • Biogeography
    • Native Distribution :
      Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Borneo, and the Philippines
      Native Habitat :
      Terrestrial
      Preferred Climate Zone :
      Tropical
      Local Conservation Status :
      Native to Singapore (Endangered (EN))
  • Description & Ethnobotany
    • Plant Morphology :
      Growth Form: It is a tree to 18 m tall and has smooth, grey-brown bark.
      Foliage: Its stalked leaves have fleshy leathery blades that are usually elliptic to lance-shaped, shiny dark green above, green below, and 4.5–12 by 1.5–5.5 cm, with 3–5 pairs of veins.
      Flowers: The plant produces unisexual flowers that are tubular, 1–1.5 by 1–1.5 mm, and arranged in stalkless clusters.
      Fruits: Its fruit is drop-shaped, yellow-orange, and 15 by 10 mm.
      Habitat :
      It grows in inland forests. It occurs locally in Mandai Forest, in the vicinity of MacRitchie Reservoir, Labrador Park, Pulau Ubin (Chek Jawa), and Pulau Tekong.
      Associated Fauna :
      Its flowers are insect-pollinated.
      Cultivation :
      It can be propagated by seed.
      Etymology :
      Canthium, from the Malabar vernacular name cantix; Latin confertum, crowded, referring to the plant’s flowers which are arranged in tight clusters
      Ethnobotanical Uses :
      None
  • Landscaping Features
    • Landscaping :
      It is suitable for parks.
      Desirable Plant Features :
      Ornamental Fruits
      Plant & Rootzone Preference/Tolerance :
      Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils
      Landscape Uses :
      Parks & Gardens
  • Fauna, Pollination & Dispersal
    • Pollination Method(s) :
      Biotic (Fauna)
      Seed / Spore Dispersal :
      Biotic (Fauna)
  • Plant Care & Propagation
    • Light Preference :
      Full Sun, Semi-Shade
      Water Preference :
      Moderate Water
      Plant Growth Rate :
      Moderate
      Maintenance Requirements :
      Moderate
      Propagation Method :
      Seed
  • Foliar
    • Foliage Retention :
      Evergreen
      Mature Foliage Colour(s) :
      Green
      Mature Foliage Texture(s) :
      Leathery
      Foliar Modification :
      Stipule
      Foliar Type :
      Simple / Unifoliate
      Foliar Arrangement Along Stem :
      Opposite
      Foliar Attachment to Stem :
      Petiolate
      Foliar Shape(s) :
      Non-Palm Foliage (Lanceolate; Elliptical)
      Foliar Venation :
      Pinnate / Net
      Foliar Margin :
      Entire
  • Floral (Angiosperm)
    • Flower & Plant Sexuality :
      Unisexual Flowers
      Flower Colour(s) :
      Yellow / Golden
      Flower Grouping :
      Cluster / Inflorescence
      Flower Location :
      Axillary
      Flower Symmetry :
      Radial
      Individual Flower Shape :
      Tubular
  • Fruit, Seed & Spore
    • Mature Fruit Colour(s) [Angiosperms & Gymnosperms] :
      Orange
      Fruit Classification :
      Simple Fruit
      Fruit Type :
      Fleshy Fruit (Non-Accessory Fruit: Berry)

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