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  Treculia africana Decne.
  Family Name : Moraceae

  Synonyms : Artocarpus africana, Treculia centralis

  Common Names : African Breadfruit, Ukwa Seed

African Breadfruit,Ukwa Seed
  • Record Info
  • Life Stage & Characteristics
    • Plant Division :
      Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
      Plant Growth Form :
      Tree (Medium (16m-30m))
      Lifespan (in Singapore) :
      Mode of Nutrition :
  • Biogeography
    • Native Distribution :
      Tropical Africa
      Native Habitat :
      Preferred Climate Zone :
  • Description & Ethnobotany
    • Plant Morphology :
      Growth Form: A medium sized tree usually grows up to 30 m tall, with some up to 50 m tall.
      Crown: The crown is dense and spreading.
      Trunk: Trunk is fluted, up to 3 m in girth. Bark is grey and smooth, exuding white latex which later changes to rusty red when cut.
      Foliage: The alternately arranged leaves are simple, ovate with pointed tips, measuring 30-50 cm long and 14-20 cm wide. Upperside of the leaf (adaxial surface) is dark-green and smooth, while underside (abaxial surface) is paler and hairy. Both the main vein and the 10-18 pairs of side veins are prominent. Leaf petioles are short, about 1.5 cm in length. Young flushes are red or yellow in color.
      Flowers: Flowers are green in color, with male ones borne in leaf axils and female ones on main branches, 2.5-10 cm in diameter.  
      Fruits: Fruits are greenish-yellow when mature, round, very large, up to 30 cm in diameter and 8-14 kg in weight, rough surface. Fruit pulp is spongy with many seeds measuring about 1 cm in length. There are 150-500 seeds per fruit.
      Habitat :
      Swampy areas or along rivers in tropical forests, up to 1,200 m altitude.
      Etymology :
      Treculia is named after Auguste Trecul, a Fench botanist in 19th century.
      Ethnobotanical Uses :
      Edible Plant Parts (Edible Fruits; Edible Leaves; Edible Seeds)
      Food (Fruit & Vegetable: Seeds are ground into breadfruit flour to make baked foods. The powered seeds are also made into drinks. Seeds can also be consumed dried, fried or roasted.)
      Medicinal (The bark decoction is used in the treatment of cough, while the root decoction is used as anthelmintic and febrifuge.), Timber & Products (The wood is heavy and has an even structure, suitable for furniture and carving. It is also suitable to make firewood and charcoal. ), Agriculture / Forestry (The leaves and fruit pulp are used as fodder.)
  • Landscaping Features
    • Desirable Plant Features :
      Ornamental Fruits
      Plant & Rootzone Preference/Tolerance :
      Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils
      Landscape Uses :
      General, Parks & Gardens, Riverine, Shade Providing Tree / Palm
      Thematic Landscaping :
      Economic Garden
  • Fauna, Pollination & Dispersal
    • Seed / Spore Dispersal :
      Biotic (Fauna)
  • Plant Care & Propagation
    • Light Preference :
      Full Sun, Semi-Shade
      Water Preference :
      Moderate Water
      Propagation Method :
      Seed, Stem Cutting, Grafting
  • Foliar
    • Foliage Retention :
      Mature Foliage Colour(s) :
      Prominent Young Flush Colour(s) :
      Red, Yellow / Golden
      Foliar Type :
      Simple / Unifoliate
  • Floral (Angiosperm)
    • Flower Colour(s) :
      Green - Light Green
  • Fruit, Seed & Spore
    • Mature Fruit Colour(s) [Angiosperms & Gymnosperms] :
      Green - Light Green, Yellow / Golden
      Mature Fruit Texture(s) :
      Mature Seed Colour(s) :
      Seed Quantity per Fruit :
      Numerous (>20)
The information given on this website has been compiled from reference works on medicinal plants and/or pron only. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Reliance on this information is strictly at your own risk. You should always consult your physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.

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