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  Cycas edentata de Laub.
  Family Name : Cycadaceae

  Synonyms : Cycas litoralis, Cycas circinalis ssp. riuminiana var. curranii f. maritima

  Common Names : Kwale Pahang, Paku Raja

 
Kwale Pahang,Paku Raja
  • Record Info
  • Life Stage & Characteristics
    • Plant Division :
      Gymnosperms (Non-Flowering Seed Plants) (Cycad)
      Plant Growth Form :
      Cycad
      Lifespan (in Singapore) :
      Perennial
      Mode of Nutrition :
      Autotrophic
      Plant Shape :
      Umbrella, Open
      Maximum Height :
      10 m
  • Biogeography
    • Native Distribution :
      Andaman Islands, southern Myanmar, Thailand, southern Vietnam, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra, Java, north Borneo, central and western Philippines.
      Native Habitat :
      Terrestrial (Coastal Forest), Shoreline (Sandy Beach; Rocky Beach)
      Preferred Climate Zone :
      Tropical
      Local Conservation Status :
      Native to Singapore (Critically Endangered (CR))
  • Description & Ethnobotany
    • Plant Morphology :
      Growth Form: It is a medium-sized palm-like plant with an emergent, usually unbranched trunk up to about 10 m tall.
      Foliage: Its trunk bears rosettes of long, bright to deep green, feather-like leaves at its tip. Its stalked leaves are spiny, up to 2.3 m long, and consist of 100–200 glossy, stiff leathery, narrowly boat-shaped leaflets arranged neatly on either side of the leaf’s axis.
      Reproductive Parts (non-flowering plant): The plant produces male or female trees. Instead of flowers, musky-scented cones grow at the tips of the tree trunk. The male trees produce cones that are compactly and regularly arranged, narrowly ovoid-cylindrical, orange-brown, and 30–60 by 11–14 cm. The male cones consist of microsporophylls that are 3.7–4.4 by 1.1–2.3 cm spirally arranged on a central axis. The microsporophylls have a distinct long, stout spine at the end, which differentiates it from the vegetatively similar looking Cycas rumphii. The female trees produce cones that are loosely arranged, and elongated. The female cones consist of megasporophylls that are covered with brown hairs, and 2–3 by 1.8–2.3 cm. Ovules, then seeds (if the ovules are fertilized) are found on the margins of the megasporophylls.
      Habitat :
      It grows in sandy or rocky coastal vegetation, along shorelines in full or moderate shade. It occurs locally in Pulau Tekong.
      Associated Fauna :
      Its strongly scented male cone is visited by insects that forage for pollen. It is also the preferred local food plant for caterpillars of the butterfly, the cycad blue (Chilades pandava pandava), that feeds on the immature shoots of the plant.
      Cultivation :
      It is propagated by the suckers (that grow more quickly) or seed (which germinate slowly).
      Etymology :
      Greek Cycas, name for a kind of palm, referring to the palm-like growth habit of this species; Latin edentata, without teeth, referring to the smooth margins of the female cone.
      Ethnobotanical Uses :
      Edible Plant Parts (Edible Leaves; Edible Seeds)
      Food (Fruit & Vegetable)
      Medicinal (The plant’s resin and seeds are applied to sores and malignant ulcers, respectively. Other parts of the plant are also used medicinally. )
      [Others]: A type of sago-like flour can be made from the trunks, and the unfurled leaves are said to be edible. The seeds are soaked in water for a few days, changing the water frequently during the process to leach out the poison (a toxic glucoside), and a kind of flour can be made from it. This plant is used as an ornamental.
  • Landscaping Features
    • Landscaping :
      This plant is hardy, long-lived, slow-growing, and tolerant of poor soil conditions. It is suitable as an ornamental plant and used regularly in Singapore as a focal point in landscape designs. Its leaves may be used in floral arrangements too. Care must be taken against attack by the caterpillars of the cycad blue butterfly.
      Desirable Plant Features :
      Ornamental Foliage, Ornamental Form
      Plant & Rootzone Preference/Tolerance :
      Saline Soils / Salt Spray, Poor Infertile Soils
      Landscape Uses :
      General, Roadside Tree / Palm, Parks & Gardens, Small Gardens, Coastal, Beachfront / Shoreline, Focal Plant
  • Fauna, Pollination & Dispersal
    • Associated Fauna :
      Caterpillar Food Plant (Leaves; Associated with: Chilades pandava pandava (Horsfield, 1829))
      Pollination Method(s) :
      Abiotic (Wind)
      Seed / Spore Dispersal :
      Abiotic (Water)
  • Plant Care & Propagation
    • Light Preference :
      Semi-Shade, Full Shade
      Water Preference :
      Moderate Water
      Maintenance Requirements :
      Moderate
      Potential Problems :
      Young leaves are often eaten by the caterpillars of the cycad blue (Chilades pandava pandava). Plant with new shoots/leaves should always be checked and sprayed with pesticide.
      Pest(s) :
      Chewing Insects, Associated with (Chilades pandava pandava (Horsfield, 1829))
      Propagation Method :
      Seed, Sucker
  • Foliar
    • Foliage Retention :
      Evergreen
      Mature Foliage Colour(s) :
      Green
      Mature Foliage Texture(s) :
      Leathery
      Prominent Young Flush Colour(s) :
      Green
      Foliar Type :
      Compound (Even-Pinnate)
      Foliar Arrangement Along Stem :
      Rosulate / Rosette
      Foliar Attachment to Stem :
      Petiolate
      Foliar Shape(s) :
      Palm Fronds (Pinnate / Feather)
  • Fruit, Seed & Spore
    • Mature Seed Colour(s) :
      Brown, Orange
      Seed Quantity per Fruit :
      Numerous (>20)
      Plant Sexuality (non-Angiosperm) :
      Dioecious
      Reproductive Mode (non-Angiosperm) :
      Sexual
      Cone / Strobilus Type :
      Frond-like Strobilus(Cycadaceae)
      Cone / Strobilius Description :
      Seed / Ovule: The female trees produce cones that are loosely arranged, and elongated. The female cones consist of megasporophylls that are covered with brown hairs, and 2–3 by 1.8–2.3 cm. Ovules, then seeds (if the ovules are fertilized) are found on the margins of the megasporophylls.
      Pollen / Staminate: The male trees produce cones that are compactly and regularly arranged, narrowly ovoid-cylindrical, orange-brown, and 30–60 by 11–14 cm. The male cones consist of microsporophylls that are 3.7–4.4 by 1.1–2.3 cm spirally arranged on a central axis.
  • References
    • Lindstrom, A. J., K. D. Hill & L. C. Stanberg. 2009. The genus Cycas (Cycadaceae) in Indonesia. Telopea. 12. 3. 385-418
The information given on this website has been compiled from reference works on medicinal plants and/or pron only. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Reliance on this information is strictly at your own risk. You should always consult your physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.

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