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Adenia macrophylla var. singaporiana
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  Alstonia pneumatophora Backer ex den Berger
  Family Name : Apocynaceae

  Common Names : Marsh Pulai, Pulai Basong

Marsh Pulai,Pulai Basong
  • Record Info
  • Life Stage & Characteristics
    • Plant Growth Form :
  • Biogeography
    • Native Distribution :
      Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Singapore, Indonesia (Sumatra, Sulawesi)
      Native Habitat :
      Terrestrial (Freshwater Swamp Forest; Riverine)
      Preferred Climate Zone :
      Local Conservation Status :
      Native to Singapore (Critically Endangered (CR))
  • Description & Ethnobotany
    • Plant Morphology :
      Growth Form: Large tree 25-55m tall, with steep buttresses to 8m high and well developed pnuematophore roots (knee shaped roots)
      Trunk: Bark smooth or sparsely scaly, grey to yelowish grey
      Foliage: Leaves spatulate  (spoon shape) or sometimes obovate, 4.3-13 cm x 1.5-4.2 cm, leaf tip rouded, sometimes retuse, arranged in whorls of 4-6 (sometimes in whorls of 3), subcoriaceous (somewhat papery),  glabrous on both sides; upper surface of leaves greyish-green, undersurface brownish to drak reddish brown. Leaves with very short/ without stalks, and without a distinct intrapetiolar stipule at base of leaf stalk. 
      Flowers: Inflorescence compound, 3-10cm long,  forming 2 bunches of densely clustered flowers. Corolla white, lobes spreading in open flower.
      Fruits: Follicles are pubescent, 10-20cm in length, with numerous seeds 
      Habitat :
      This species occupies swampy areas and can be found on periodically inundated areas along streams, where it grows on sandy or heavy loam. 
      Similar :
      The leaf shape is similar to Alstonia spatulata, from which it can be easily distinguished from the species by the presence of pneumatophore roots (after which the species takes its name)
      Etymology :
      The species epithet 'Pneumatophora' refers to the pneumatophore (knee like) roots that this species produces
      Ethnobotanical Uses :
      Cultural / Religious (
      Heritage Trees :
      There is currently one individual of Alstonia pneumatophora listed as a Heritage Tree in Singapore. It can be found at Singapore Botanic Gardens. To find out more about these trees, please visit the Heritage Tree Register.
  • Landscaping Features
    • Desirable Plant Features :
      Ornamental Trunk, Ornamental Form
      Plant & Rootzone Preference/Tolerance :
      Moist Soils, Waterlogged Soils (Drains Site)
      Landscape Uses :
      Riverine, Marsh / Bog
      Thematic Landscaping :
      Marsh Garden, Bird & Wildlife Garden
      Usage Hazards / Cons :
      Large Buttress Roots
  • Fauna, Pollination & Dispersal
    • Pollination Method(s) :
      Biotic (Fauna)
      Seed / Spore Dispersal :
  • Plant Care & Propagation
    • Light Preference :
      Full Sun
      Water Preference :
      Lots of Water, Moderate Water
      Propagation Method :
  • Foliar
    • Foliage Retention :
      Mature Foliage Colour(s) :
  • Floral (Angiosperm)
    • Flower Colour(s) :
      Flower Grouping :
      Cluster / Inflorescence
The information given on this website has been compiled from reference works on medicinal plants and/or pron only. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Reliance on this information is strictly at your own risk. You should always consult your physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.

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