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  Carissa carandas L.
  Family Name : Apocynaceae

  Synonyms : Carissa salicina, Echites spinosus

  Common Names : Kerenda, Karandang, Karonda

  Chinese Name : 刺黄果

  • Record Info
  • Life Stage & Characteristics
    • Plant Division :
      Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
      Plant Growth Form :
      Climber, Vine & Liana, Shrub (Woody)
      Lifespan (in Singapore) :
      Mode of Nutrition :
      Maximum Height :
      5 m
  • Biogeography
    • Native Distribution :
      India, Bangladesh
      Native Habitat :
      Preferred Climate Zone :
      Tropical, Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal
  • Description & Ethnobotany
    • Plant Morphology :
      Growth Form: It is a woody shrub to a small tree, with climbing habit. It can grow up to 5 m tall.
      Foliage: Leaves are broadly ovate to oblong in shape, measuring up to 7 cm long and 4 cm wide, with broadly cuneate to rounded base and apiculate apex. 
      Stems: Stems have spines which are simple to slightly forked, measuring about 5 cm.
      Flowers: Inflorescence in cyme arrangement, fragrant white flowers, tubular up to 2 cm long, with lanceolate lobes which are overlapping to right. 
      Fruits: Berries, reddish purple, globose to broadly oval in shape, measuring about 2.5 cm x 2 cm. 
      Cultivation :
      Carissa carandas is cultivated for its edible fruits. It is a hardy plant, and can grow well in a wide range of soils although it prefers a medium-acid soil (pH 6.5 - 8). It is tolerant to drought and survives well in areas with high temperatures.
      Ethnobotanical Uses :
      Edible Plant Parts (Edible Fruits)
      Medicinal (The fruits of Carissa carandas are used to provide anti-inflammatory effects.)
      [Others]: The fruit tastes sour when matures but sourish sweet when fully ripens. It is eaten raw and can be made into jam, jellies or puddings.
  • Landscaping Features
    • Landscaping :
      Due to the hardiness towards trimming, the plant is suitable as a hedge and an excellent barrier.
      Desirable Plant Features :
      Ornamental Flowers, Ornamental Fruits, Fragrant (Flowers)
      Plant & Rootzone Preference/Tolerance :
      Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils
      Landscape Uses :
      General, Roadside Tree / Palm, Hedge / Screening
  • Fauna, Pollination & Dispersal
    • Associated Fauna :
      Bird-Attracting (Fruits)
      Pollination Method(s) :
      Biotic (Fauna)
      Seed / Spore Dispersal :
      Biotic (Fauna)
  • Plant Care & Propagation
    • Light Preference :
      Full Sun
      Water Preference :
      Moderate Water, Little Water
      Propagation Method :
      Seed, Stem Cutting
  • Foliar
    • Foliage Retention :
      Mature Foliage Colour(s) :
      Mature Foliage Texture(s) :
      Prominent Young Flush Colour(s) :
      Young Flush Texture(s) :
      Foliar Type :
      Simple / Unifoliate
      Foliar Arrangement Along Stem :
      Foliar Attachment to Stem :
      Foliar Shape(s) :
      Non-Palm Foliage (Ovate)
      Foliar Venation :
      Pinnate / Net
      Foliar Margin :
      Foliar Apex / Tip :
      Foliar Base :
      Cuneate, Rounded / Obtuse
  • Floral (Angiosperm)
    • Flower & Plant Sexuality :
      Bisexual Flowers
      Flower Colour(s) :
      FlowerTexture(s) :
      Flower Grouping :
      Cluster / Inflorescence
      Flower Location :
      Individual Flower Shape :
      Inflorescence Type :
      Flowering Period :
The information given on this website has been compiled from reference works on medicinal plants and/or pron only. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Reliance on this information is strictly at your own risk. You should always consult your physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.

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