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  Vallaris glabra
  Family Name : Apocynaceae

  Synonyms : Vallaris pergulana

  Common Names : Bread Flower, Siku Dengan, Bunga Tongkan, Kerak Nasi, Bunga Kesidang, Kesedengan

Bread Flower,Siku Dengan,Bunga Tongkan,Kerak Nasi,Bunga Kesidang,Kesedengan
  • Record Info
    • Featured in '1001 Garden Plants in Singapore' Book (2ed) :
  • Life Stage & Characteristics
    • Plant Division :
      Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
      Plant Growth Form :
      Climber, Vine & Liana
      Lifespan (in Singapore) :
      Mode of Nutrition :
      Maximum Height :
      2 m to 3 m
  • Biogeography
    • Native Distribution :
      Sumatra, Java, Lesser Sunda Islands.
      Native Habitat :
      Preferred Climate Zone :
      Local Conservation Status :
  • Description & Ethnobotany
    • Plant Morphology :
      Growth Form: Evergreen, woody climber, can growth up to about 2 - 3 m wide. 
      Foliage: Light green, glossy, opposite leaves are elliptic or ovate with wavy leaf margin. Leaf apex is acute or has a distinct drip tip. 
      Stems: Thin, woody stem has light grey, smooth bark.
      Flowers: Large, white cup-shaped flowers have 5 pointed, slightly overlapping petals. The outer edge of each petal is curled inward to form a sharp point in the middle. Flowers occur in dense terminal clusters near the branch tips. They open in the morning, but their Pandan or burnt rice-like fragrance is strongest in the evening.
      Fruits: Oblong, beaked fruit splits into 2 dry, dehiscent fruits known as follicles.
      Cultivation :
      This species is easy to grow and has a moderate growth rate. Plant this species in fertile, well-draining soil and space individuals 0.3 - 0.4 m apart. It flowers best under full sun, because shady conditions inhibit flowering. Mulch the plants with compost to prevent the soil from drying out or the roots from overheating. Feed plants with a fertilizer rich in phosphorous to promote flowering. Avoid using nitrogen rich fertilizers, because they encourage development of leaves rather than flowers. Try not to prune this species frequently, because flowers are produced from the new growth.
      Etymology :
      The genus "Vallaris" is Latin for a garland given to the first soldier to climb over the enemy's rampart.
      The species epithet "glabra" means hairless. It refers to the upper surface of leaves which are generally hairless.
      Ethnobotanical Uses :
      Medicinal, Cut / Dried Flower, Cultural / Religious (The flower is the state flower of Malacca (Malaysia). In the past, Malay women would tie their hair in a bun and place the flowers in the bun. It is often used in a special potpourri called "bunga rampai" for Malay weddings.)
  • Landscaping Features
    • Landscaping :
      This species is popular for landscaping in Thailand and other countries in Southeast Asia. It can be trained to drape over a trellis or pergola. Alternatively, you can prune it into a bush. This species will grow well in a large container and is suitable for a sunny patio. It will attract butterflies as a nectar plant for butterfly gardens. The white flowers and intense evening fragrance would also make it suitable for a "Moonlight Garden" theme.
      Desirable Plant Features :
      Ornamental Flowers, Fragrant (Flowers: Day, Night)
      Plant & Rootzone Preference/Tolerance :
      Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils
      Landscape Uses :
      Trellis / Arbour / Pergola, Shade Providing Tree / Palm, Container Planting
      Thematic Landscaping :
      Moonlight Garden, Butterfly Garden
      Usage Hazards / Cons :
      Irritant - Contact Allergy
  • Fauna, Pollination & Dispersal
    • Associated Fauna :
      Butterfly Food Plant
      Pollination Method(s) :
      Biotic (Fauna) (Insects (Butterfly, Moth); Insects (Bee))
  • Plant Care & Propagation
    • Light Preference :
      Full Sun, Semi-Shade
      Water Preference :
      Moderate Water
      Plant Growth Rate :
      Planting Distance :
      0.3 m to 0.4 m
      Maintenance Requirements :
      Propagation Method :
      Stem Cutting, Grafting, Air-Layering
      Propagule Establishment Remarks :
      Propagate by layering. Secure the stem to the ground with a brick or similar object, and roots will form on the stem in about 2 weeks. The stem can then be separated from the mother plant and planted elsewhere. Alternatively, you can propagate by grafting. 
  • Foliar
    • Foliage Retention :
      Mature Foliage Colour(s) :
      Mature Foliage Texture(s) :
      Smooth, Glossy / Shiny
      Foliar Type :
      Simple / Unifoliate
      Foliar Arrangement Along Stem :
      Foliar Shape(s) :
      Non-Palm Foliage (Ovate; Oval)
      Foliar Venation :
      Pinnate / Net
      Foliar Margin :
      Foliar Apex / Tip :
      Acute, Acuminate
      Foliar Base :
      Acute, Rounded / Obtuse
  • Non-Foliar & Storage
    • Bark Colour(s) :
      light grey
      Mature Bark Texture :
      Stem Type & Modification :
      Root Type :
      Underground (Tap Root)
  • Floral (Angiosperm)
    • Flower & Plant Sexuality :
      Bisexual Flowers
      Flower Colour(s) :
      Flower Symmetry :
      Individual Flower Shape :
      Flowering Period :
      Flowering Opening Time :
      Flowering Habit :
  • Fruit, Seed & Spore
    • Fruit Classification :
      Simple Fruit
      Fruit Type :
      Dehiscent Dry Fruit (Follicle)
The information given on this website has been compiled from reference works on medicinal plants and/or pron only. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Reliance on this information is strictly at your own risk. You should always consult your physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.

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