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  Carphalea kirondron Baill.
  Family Name : Rubiaceae

  Common Names : Flaming Beauty

  Chinese Name : 繁星花

Flaming Beauty
  • Record Info
    • Featured in '1001 Garden Plants in Singapore' Book (2ed) :
  • Life Stage & Characteristics
    • Plant Division :
      Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
      Plant Growth Form :
      Shrub (Woody)
      Lifespan (in Singapore) :
      Mode of Nutrition :
      Plant Shape :
      Maximum Height :
      1.5 m to 3 m
  • Biogeography
    • Native Distribution :
      Native Habitat :
      Preferred Climate Zone :
      Local Conservation Status :
      Exotic (Horticultural / Cultivated Only)
  • Description & Ethnobotany
    • Plant Morphology :
      Growth Form: Tropical shrub, up to 3 m or more in height if not restrained. 
      Foliage: Leaves mostly opposite, sometimes whorled, 10 cm by 5 cm, green with protruding veins. Interpetiolar stipules present.
      Stems: Woody stems, leaf petioles 2 cm long, red hue. 
      Flowers: Blooms in large bunches, 10 - 20 cm across, bright red calyx enlarged and unequal (1 lobe is more enlarged than the others). Inflorescence terminal, in a corymb-like thyrse. Flowers bisexual, tubular, white and 4 - petaled, inconspicuous from far. Heterostylous, flowers have either long or short styles. Flowers' lifespan up to months.
      Fruits: Fruits are indehiscent and nut-like. 
      Similar :
      Often mistaken as Ixora species as bright red calyx look similar to flowers of Ixora species. Ixora leaves are oppositely arranged along the stems, and the flower lobes are equal, with anthers dorsifixed near the base. 
      Cultivation :
      Prune often to promote bushiness and flowering. Plants flowers best under full sun. Ensure plant in a well-drained soil, rich in organic matter.
      Ethnobotanical Uses :
  • Landscaping Features
    • Landscaping :
      Grown for its showy ornamental flowers, planted as hedge along roadside. Fast growing and low maintenance, blooms well under full sun. 
      Desirable Plant Features :
      Ornamental Flowers
      Landscape Uses :
      General, Hedge / Screening, Flowerbed / Border, Container Planting
      Thematic Landscaping :
      Butterfly Garden
      Usage Hazards / Cons :
      Weak Branches
  • Plant Care & Propagation
    • Light Preference :
      Full Sun
      Water Preference :
      Moderate Water
      Plant Growth Rate :
      Maintenance Requirements :
      Potential Problems :
      No serious pest or disease problems.
      Propagation Method :
      Seed, Stem Cutting, [Remarks] (Propagation by seeds are more difficult compared to stem cuttings. For stem cuttings, cut a few stems of 5-6 inches in length, trim away excess leaves, leaving a couple for plant to make food. Plant stem in one and half inches deep hole, cover with soil and place plant in shaded area, water regularly.)
  • Foliar
    • Foliage Retention :
      Mature Foliage Colour(s) :
      Mature Foliage Texture(s) :
      Smooth, Raised / Sunken Veins
      Prominent Young Flush Colour(s) :
      Young Flush Texture(s) :
      Smooth, Raised / Sunken Veins
      Foliar Type :
      Simple / Unifoliate
      Foliar Arrangement Along Stem :
      Opposite, Whorled
      Foliar Attachment to Stem :
      Foliar Shape(s) :
      Non-Palm Foliage (Ovate; Lanceolate)
      Foliar Venation :
      Pinnate / Net
      Foliar Margin :
      Foliar Apex / Tip :
      Typical Foliar Area :
      Mesophyll ( 45cm2 - 182.25 cm2 )
      Leaf Area Index (LAI) * for Green Plot Ratio :
      4.5 (Shrub & Groundcover - Dicot)
  • Non-Foliar & Storage
    • Stem Type & Modification :
  • Floral (Angiosperm)
    • Flower & Plant Sexuality :
      Bisexual Flowers
      Flower Colour(s) :
      Red, White
      Flower Grouping :
      Cluster / Inflorescence
      Flower Location :
      Flower Symmetry :
      Individual Flower Shape :
      Inflorescence Type :
      Ovary Position :
      Inferior / Epipgynous
      Flowering Period :
      Flowering Habit :
  • Fruit, Seed & Spore
    • Fruit Classification :
      Simple Fruit
      Fruit Type :
      Indehiscent Dry Fruit

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